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We used microarray technology to measure mRNA decay rates in resting and activated T lymphocytes in order to better understand the role of mRNA decay in regulating gene expression. Purified human T lymphocytes were stimulated for 3 h with medium alone, with an anti-CD3 antibody, or with a combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. Actinomycin D was(More)
Many cell types in the brain express chemokines and chemokine receptors under homeostatic conditions, arguing for a role of these proteins in normal brain processes. Because chemokines have been shown to regulate hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation, we hypothesized that chemokines would regulate neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation as well.(More)
Chemokines are a family of related proteins that regulate leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissue. Some chemokines such as MIP-1 alpha also inhibit hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. Recently, three chemokines, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and RANTES, have been found to significantly decrease human immunodeficiency virus production from infected T(More)
The exact mechanism by which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) produces dementia remains obscure. We have recently found that chemokines can inhibit neural progenitor cell proliferation. We hypothesized that HIV-1 could also inhibit neural progenitor cell proliferation by chemokine receptor signaling. We found that HIV-1 coat proteins that used(More)
Chemokines are a group of small, homologous proteins that regulate leukocyte migration, hemopoiesis, and HIV-1 absorption. We report here the cloning and characterization of a novel murine and human C-C chemokine termed Exodus-2 for its similarity to Exodus-1/MIP-3alpha/LARC, and its chemotactic ability. This novel chemokine has a unique 36 or 37 (murine(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs), because they orchestrate the immune response to microbes, represent an ideal target for pathogens attempting to evade the immune system. We hypothesized that interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and DCs lead to the development of a semimature state, in which DCs migrate to lymph nodes but induce tolerance in T(More)
Many viruses have evolved mechanisms for evading the host immune system by synthesizing proteins that interfere with the normal immune response. The poxviruses are among the most accomplished at deceiving their hosts' immune systems. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of the human cutaneous poxvirus, molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) type 1, was recently(More)
The induction of chemokines by interferons might represent a link between innate and adaptive immunity. Whether these induced chemokines might be useful by themselves to induce an immune response is not known. We hypothesized that the interferon-inducible chemokine CXCL10 could stimulate dendritic cells (DC) to mature and cross-present exogenous antigen to(More)
In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox eradicated from the world; the last known natural case had occurred in Somalia in 1977, and the United States had stopped routinely vaccinating its citizens in 1972. However, with increasing concerns regarding domestic and international terrorism, smallpox has resurfaced as a potential threat to(More)
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