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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that leads to complications including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness and nerve damage. Type 2 diabetes, characterized by target-tissue resistance to insulin, is epidemic in industrialized societies and is strongly associated with obesity; however, the mechanism by which increased adiposity causes(More)
Valproic acid is widely used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and is also a potent teratogen, but its mechanisms of action in any of these settings are unknown. We report that valproic acid activates Wntdependent gene expression, similar to lithium, the mainstay of therapy for bipolar disorder. Valproic acid, however, acts through a distinct pathway(More)
The timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation is thought to depend on an intrinsic clock in oligodendrocyte precursor cells that counts time or cell divisions and limits precursor cell proliferation. We show here that this clock mechanism can be separated into a counting component and an effector component that stops cell proliferation: whereas the counting(More)
Many cofactors bind the hormone-activated estrogen receptor (ER), yet the specific regulators of endogenous ER-mediated gene transcription are unknown. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we find that ER and a number of coactivators rapidly associate with estrogen responsive promoters following estrogen treatment in a cyclic fashion that is not(More)
We have identified a family of resistin-like molecules (RELMs) in rodents and humans. Resistin is a hormone produced by fat cells. RELMalpha is a secreted protein that has a restricted tissue distribution with highest levels in adipose tissue. Another family member, RELMbeta, is a secreted protein expressed only in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly(More)
N-CoR and SMRT are transcriptional corepressors that associate with nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) in the absence of ligand. This interaction is the molecular target of differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia, wherein retinoic acid dissociates corepressor from leukaemogenic receptor fusion proteins. Binding of ligand to NRs induces a(More)
Adipose tissue plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis through the storage and turnover of triglycerides and through the secretion of factors that affect satiety and fuel utilization. Agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, such as rosiglitazone, appear to exert their therapeutic effect through adipose tissue, but the precise mechanisms(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma(PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor and the target of anti-diabetic thiazolinedione drugs, is known as the master regulator of adipocyte biology. Although it regulates hundreds of adipocyte genes, PPARgamma binding to endogenous genes has rarely been demonstrated. Here, utilizing chromatin immunoprecipitation(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate gene transcription in response to peroxisome proliferators and fatty acids. PPARs also play an important role in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. It is unclear, however, what naturally occurring compounds activate each of the PPAR subtypes. To address(More)