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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that leads to complications including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness and nerve damage. Type 2 diabetes, characterized by target-tissue resistance to insulin, is epidemic in industrialized societies and is strongly associated with obesity; however, the mechanism by which increased adiposity causes(More)
Lithium is commonly used to treat bipolar disorder, which is associated with altered circadian rhythm. Lithium is a potent inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), which regulates circadian rhythm in several organisms. In experiments with cultured cells, we show here that GSK3beta phosphorylates and stabilizes the orphan nuclear receptor(More)
N-CoR and SMRT are transcriptional corepressors that associate with nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) in the absence of ligand. This interaction is the molecular target of differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia, wherein retinoic acid dissociates corepressor from leukaemogenic receptor fusion proteins. Binding of ligand to NRs induces a(More)
Many cofactors bind the hormone-activated estrogen receptor (ER), yet the specific regulators of endogenous ER-mediated gene transcription are unknown. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we find that ER and a number of coactivators rapidly associate with estrogen responsive promoters following estrogen treatment in a cyclic fashion that is not(More)
Gene expression is dynamically regulated by chromatin modifications on histone tails, such as acetylation. In general, histone acetylation promotes transcription, whereas histone deacetylation negatively regulates transcription. The interplay between histone acetyltranserases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is pivotal for the regulation of gene expression(More)
Repression of gene transcription is linked to regulation of chromatin structure through deacetylation of core histone amino-terminal tails. This action is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) that function within active multiprotein complexes directed to the promoters of repressed genes. In vivo, HDAC3 forms a stable complex with the SMRT corepressor.(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate gene transcription in response to peroxisome proliferators and fatty acids. PPARs also play an important role in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. It is unclear, however, what naturally occurring compounds activate each of the PPAR subtypes. To address(More)
Rev-Erb is an orphan nuclear receptor which binds as a monomer to the thyroid/retinoic acid receptor half-site AGGTCA flanked 5' by an A/T-rich sequence, referred to here as a Rev monomer site. Fusion of Rev-Erb to the DNA binding domain of yeast GAL4 strongly repressed basal transcription of a GAL4-luciferase reporter gene as a result of the presence of a(More)
Rhythmic changes in histone acetylation at circadian clock genes suggest that temporal modulation of gene expression is regulated by chromatin modifications. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrate a critical relationship between circadian and metabolic physiology. The nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (Ncor1) functions as an activating subunit for the(More)