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Forces acting on the forearm and hand during swimming can be decomposed into drag forces and lift forces. In this study drag and lift forces were measured on two models of a human hand and forearm when towed in a towing tank. To compare the results of models with different size at different velocities force data were normalized to drag and lift coefficients(More)
Forces in human swimming consist of two components, a drag force and a lift force. The lift force is assumed to be beneficial because of the relative small energy loss to the water. This energy loss can be quantified by determining the propelling efficiency, ep (defined as the ratio of the useful power to the total power output). The first purpose of this(More)
To evaluate the propulsive forces in front crawl arm swimming, derived from a three-dimensional kinematic analysis, these values were compared with mean drag forces. The propulsive forces during front crawl swimming using the arms only were calculated using three-dimensional kinematic analysis combined with lift and drag coefficients obtained in fluid(More)
The purpose of this study was to describe the push-off kinematics in speed skating using three-dimensional coordinates of elite male sprinters during the first part of a speed skating sprint. The velocity of the mass center of the skater's body VC, is decomposed into an "extension" velocity component VE, which is associated with the shortening and(More)
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