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Killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is mediated by the secretion of lytic granules. The centrosome plays a key role in granule delivery, polarizing to the central supramolecular activation complex (cSMAC) within the immunological synapse upon T cell receptor (TCR) activation. Although stronger TCR signals lead to increased target cell death than do(More)
Docking of the centrosome at the plasma membrane directs lytic granules to the immunological synapse. To identify signals controlling centrosome docking at the synapse, we have studied cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in which expression of the T cell receptor-activated tyrosine kinase Lck is ablated. In the absence of Lck, the centrosome is able to(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-induced death triggered by the granule exocytosis pathway involves the perforin-dependent delivery of granzymes to the target cell. Gene targeting has shown that perforin is essential for this process; however, CTL deficient in the key granzymes A and B maintain the ability to kill their targets by granule exocytosis. It is not(More)
A reverse genetics strategy was used to insert the OVA peptide (amino acid sequence SIINFEKL; OVA(257-264)) into the neuraminidase stalk of both the A/PR8 (H1N1) and A/HKx31 (H3N2) influenza A viruses. Initial characterization determined that K(b)OVA257 is presented on targets infected with PR8-OVA and HK-OVA without significantly altering D(b)(More)
Cytotoxic lymphocytes serve a key role in immune homeostasis by eliminating virus-infected and transformed target cells through the perforin-dependent delivery of proapoptotic granzymes. However, the mechanism of granzyme entry into cells remains unresolved. Using biochemical approaches combined with time-lapse microscopy of human primary cytotoxic(More)
Granzyme (grz) AB(-/-) H2(b) mice generate numerically normal cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to the prominent influenza A virus D(b) NP(366) and D(b) PA(224) epitopes and terminate the infectious process in the pneumonic lung with the same kinetics as the WT controls. Though grz B protein expression is fully compromised, there is only a partial(More)
Ag-specific, CD8+ CTLs clear influenza A viruses from the lung via granzyme (Gzm) and perforin-dependent mechanisms. Ex vivo analysis of perforin-Gzm mRNA profiles demonstrated substantial heterogeneity in patterns of effector mRNA transcription of CD8+ D(b)NP(366)- or D(b)PA(224)-specific CTL. The only difference between the two epitope-specific sets was(More)
Failure of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer (NK) cells to kill target cells by perforin (Prf)/granzyme (Gzm)-induced apoptosis causes severe immune dysregulation. In familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Prf-deficient infants suffer a fatal "cytokine storm" resulting from macrophage overactivation, but the link to failed target cell(More)
The rapid recall of influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T cell effector function is protective, although our understanding of T cell memory remains incomplete. Recent debate has focused particularly on the CD62L lymph node homing receptor. The present analysis shows that although functional memory can be established from both CD62L(hi) and CD62L(lo) CD8(+) T(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rapidly kill target cells via the release of lytic granules into the immunological synapse, a process directed by the docking of the centrosome at the plasma membrane. New evidence highlights how signal strength and avidity influence the recruitment of cytolytic machinery to the synapse, and the role of each synaptic(More)