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Efferent and afferent connections of the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups in the medulla of the cat were mapped by axonal transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into the dorsal respiratory group and the three principal subdivisions of the ventral respiratory(More)
We present three hypotheses related to the nervous system control of breathing in mammals: 1) that neural mechanisms controlling breathing change with state and that the relationship between mechanisms in different states can be described in terms of either modulation or a basic transformation of properties, or both; 2) that the mechanisms generating(More)
This article describes the development of an in vitro multicolor fluorescence assay system for studying protein/DNA complex formation, transcription bubble formation, and mRNA production. These studies were accomplished using three different fluorescent spectroscopic probes: rhodamine-labeled DNA (at the 5' position) to monitor protein/DNA complex(More)
PURPOSE The greatest barrier to quality control (QC) in the digital imaging environment is the lack of communication and documentation between those who interpret images and those who acquire them. Paper-based QC methods are insufficient in a digital image management system. Problem work flow must be incorporated into reengineering efforts when migrating to(More)
The effects of nearest neighbor interactions between a nucleotide base at the primer 3'-terminus and an incoming deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate on DNA polymerase catalyzed insertion were examined. Kinetics of inserting the fluorescent nucleotide analog 2-aminopurine deoxyribonucleotide (dAPMP) and dAMP opposite a template T by 3'-->5'(More)
Multiphasic kinetics are often observed in stopped-flow investigations. To characterize further these kinetic phases, we have developed a methodology whereby fluorescence total intensity and anisotropy stopped-flow data can be combined in a single analysis. Fluorescence total intensity and anisotropy are highly interrelated and contain two very(More)
The effects of local DNA sequence on the proofreading efficiency of wild-type T4 DNA polymerase were examined by measuring the kinetics of removal of the fluorescent nucleotide analog 2-aminopurine deoxynucleoside monophosphate (dAPMP) from primer/templates of defined sequences. The effects of (1) interactions with the 5'-neighboring bases, (2) base pair(More)
The binding of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase (T4 pol) to primer-template DNA with 2-aminopurine (2AP) located at the primer terminus results in the formation of a hyperfluorescent 2AP state. Changes in this hyperfluorescent state were utilized to investigate the fractional concentration of primer-templates bound at the exonuclease and statically quenched(More)
DNA polymerases are complex enzymes which bind primer-template DNA and subsequently either extend or excise the terminal nucleotide on the primer strand. In this study, a stopped-flow fluorescence anisotropy binding assay is combined with real-time measurements of a fluorescent adenine analogue (2-aminopurine) located at the 3'-primer terminus. Using this(More)
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