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The contributions of separate sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to pupillary dilation during a sustained processing task were studied through environmental and pharmacological manipulations. In Experiment 1, 22 healthy volunteers (11 female) performed a serial Subtract 7 task while pupil diameter was recorded both during moderate room light and in(More)
OBJECTIVE Carotid-cavernous fistulae (CCFs) are abnormal communications between the carotid artery and cavernous sinus that may present with rapid visual deterioration and extraocular paresis as a result of increasing intraocular pressure requiring emergent treatment to preserve vision. We present a technique of balloon-assisted ethanol embolization of the(More)
The authors present a rare case of diffuse hypertrophy of the pachymeninges due to lymphomatous dural infiltration. This lymphoma arose late after orthotopic liver transplant, was Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative, and arose in a setting of prior hepatitis C infection, a condition that may contribute to development of some non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Biopsy of(More)
A 53-year-old man presented with optic neuritis, followed within 10 weeks by a subacute progression of weakness, ataxia, and multiple cranial nerve palsies. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple T2-hyperintense lesions extending from the ponto-medullary junction to the thalamus and internal capsule. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed(More)
A 73-year-old woman presented with mild anterior uveitis, ipsilateral optic neuropathy, and ipsilateral skin nodules. A compressive mass at the level of the orbital apex and sphenoid wing was found on cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Biopsy of the skin nodules revealed histopathologic evidence of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, or(More)
Cognitive operations can be detected by reduction of the pupillary light response. Neurophysiological pathways mediating this reduction have not been distinguished. We utilized selective blockade of pupillary sphincter or dilator muscles to isolate parasympathetic or sympathetic activity during cognition, without modifying central processes. Pupil diameter(More)
A 32-year-old woman who developed binocular horizontal diplopia was found to have an isolated fascicular sixth nerve palsy secondary to hemorrhage of a cavernous malformation within the left pontine tegmentum. There was sparing of the paramedian pontine reticular formation and absence of a horizontal gaze palsy. The natural history of cavernous(More)