Misa Ogawa

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By developing a new in vivo method to evaluate the esophageal closure, which reflects inhibition of swallowing, we demonstrate that the vagal X1 branch projected from the glossopharyngeal-vagal motor complex (GVC) controls the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) muscle directly. Although eel vagal nerve consisted of five branches, other branches (X2, X3, X4(More)
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