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Neuronal activity and many pathological states in the CNS are accompanied by transient astrocytic swelling, which affects excitability, extrasynaptic transmission, and neuron-glia interactions. By using three-dimensional confocal morphometry (3DCM), we quantified the morphometric parameters of astrocytes in intact tissue. In experiments performed in brain(More)
The overflow of neuropeptide Y (NPY; radioimmunoassay), noradrenaline and dihydroxyphenylethylenglycol (DOPEG; high pressure liquid chromatography) from guinea-pig perfused hearts was investigated in relationship to exocytotic and nonexocytotic release mechanisms. Exocytotic release: Electrical stimulation of the left stellate ganglion (12 Hz; 1 min) evoked(More)
The effect of nicotine on the release of noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y was investigated in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts (Langendorff technique). Endogenous noradrenaline, dihydroxyphenylglycol (both determined by high pressure liquid chromatography) and neuropeptide Y (determined by radioimmunoassay) were measured in the coronary venous effluent(More)
Energy depletion during ischemia leads to disturbed ionic homeostasis and accumulation of neuroactive substances in the extracellular space, subsequently leading to volume changes in astrocytes. Confocal microscopy combined with 3D reconstruction was used to quantify ischemia-induced astrocyte volume changes in cortical slices of GFAP/EGFP transgenic mice.(More)
The intestinal transport of nutrients exhibits distinct diurnal rhythmicity, and the enterocytes harbor a circadian clock. However, temporal regulation of the genes involved in colonic ion transport, i.e., ion transporters and channels operating in absorption and secretion, remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we assessed the 24-h profiles of(More)
Although the gastrointestinal tract is a rich source of melatonin and possesses numerous melatonin-binding sites, the role of melatonin in this tissue has not yet been fully elucidated. In this work we focused on the role of melatonin in the modulation of ion transport in rat distal colon. Whereas melatonin had no effect on colonic secretion or caused only(More)
Increased colonic Cl(-) secretion was supposed to be a causative factor of diarrhea in inflammatory bowel diseases. Surprisingly, hyporesponsiveness to Cl(-) secretagogues was later described in inflamed colon. Our aim was to evaluate changes in secretory responses to cholinergic agonist carbachol in distal and proximal colon during colitis development,(More)
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