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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are a treatment of choice for stress related disorders including clinical depression and a range of anxiety-related disorders. In the experimental animals, chronic stress paradigms are considered as a model of depression, and in that context are used for examining the effects of different drug treatments. The(More)
Chronic stress and impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) feedback are important factors for the compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. We investigated the effects of chronic 21 day isolation of Wistar rats on the extrinsic negative feedback part of HPA axis: hippocampus (HIPPO) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In addition to serum(More)
Successful adaptation to stress involves synergized actions of glucocorticoids and catecholamines at several levels of the CNS, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Inside the PFC, hormonal signals trigger concerted actions of transcriptional factors, such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), culminating in a balanced,(More)
Successful adaptation to stress involves actions of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a steroid-dependent transcription factor, abundant in hippocampus. Another transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NFjB) is considered as an important stress sensor implicated in adaptive synaptic plasticity. Numerous stress-related genes are regulated by both(More)
Gender-related differences in dexamethasone binding to corticosteroid receptors (CR) and in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein level in the pituitary, hypothalamus, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were studied before and after antidepressant fluoxetine administration to both unstressed and rats exposed to a chronic social isolation stress. Untreated(More)
Knowledge of the antioxidant defense in the stress-responding structures of the CNS is of crucial importance, since oxidative damage is a phenomenon accompanying many stress-related disorders. Regulation of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory defense through Nrf2 (nuclear factor 2 eritroid related factor 2) pathway has emerged as a promising approach for(More)
Chronic stress is a contributing risk factor in the development of psychiatric illnesses, including depressive disorders. The mechanisms of their psychopathology are multifaceted and include, besides others, alterations in the brain plasticity. Previously, we investigated the effects of chronic social stress in the limbic brain structures of Wistar rats(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a key component in compromised neuroendocrine stress response and, among other etiological causes, it may also involve action of glucocorticoid hormones. In the current study we followed glucocorticoid receptor and identified its mitochondrial phosphoisophorms in hippocampus and prefrontal brain cortex(More)
One of the most consistent biological findings in major depression (MDD) is the altered activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is not surprising that glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the common mechanism for stress-related changes in brain function, is a potential target of antidepressant drugs and therapies. All effective antidepressant(More)
Plastic response and successful adaptation to stress are of particular importance in the hippocampus, where chronic stress may cause cell death instead of neural remodeling. Structural modifications that occur both in the brain of depressed patients and animal stress models may be reversed by antidepressants. Since morphological changes induced by stress(More)