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In hippocampal and other cortical neurons, action potentials are followed by afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) generated by the activation of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels). By shaping the neuronal firing pattern, these AHPs contribute to the regulation of excitability and to the encoding function of neurons. Here we report that CA1(More)
In most central neurons, action potentials are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that controls firing pattern and excitability. The medium and slow components of the AHP have been ascribed to the activation of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) channels. Cloned SK channels are heteromeric complexes of SK alpha-subunits and(More)
Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs isolated from a rat cortex cDNA library reveals that a gene family encodes several highly homologous K+ channel forming (RCK) proteins. Functional characterization of the channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes following microinjection of in vitro transcribed RCK-specific RNAs shows that each of the RCK proteins forms K+(More)
Ca(2+)-activated, voltage-independent K(+) channels are present in most neurons and mediate the afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) following action potentials. They present distinct physiological and pharmacological properties and play an important role in controlling neuronal firing frequency and spike frequency adaptation. We used in situ hybridization to(More)
Modulation of neuronal excitability by regulation of K+ channels potentially plays a part in short-term memory but has not yet been studied at the molecular level. Regulation of K+ channels by protein phosphorylation and oxygen has been described for various tissues and cell types; regulation of fast-inactivating K+ channels mediating IK(A) currents has not(More)
Some venomous animals capture prey with remarkable efficiency and speed. The purple cone, Conus purpurascens, uses two parallel physiological mechanisms requiring multiple neurotoxins to immobilize fish rapidly: neuromuscular block, and excitotoxic shock. The latter requires the newly characterized peptide kappa-conotoxin PVIIA, which inhibits the Shaker(More)
Using in situ hybridisation histochemistry in combination with patch-clamp recordings and specific pharmacological tools, the molecular nature of the channels underlying Ca2+-dependent K+ currents was determined in dorsal vagal neurones (DVNs) of rat brainstem slices. In situ hybridisation analysis at cellular resolution revealed the presence of(More)
A rat brain cDNA (Raw3) related to the Drosophila Shaw K+ channel family has been characterized. Raw3 cRNA leads to the formation of TEA-insensitive, fast inactivating (A-type) K+ channels when injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Raw3 channels have markedly different properties from the previously cloned rat A-type K+ channel RCK4, Raw3 channels operate(More)
Previously, we characterized a Shaker-related family of voltage-gated potassium channels (RCK) in rat brain. Now, we describe a second family of voltage-gated potassium channels in the rat nervous system. This family is related to the Drosophila Shaw gene and has been dubbed Raw. In contrast to the RCK potassium channel family the Raw family utilizes(More)
Many voltage-gated K+ channels carry in the external vestibule a receptor for charybdotoxin, a peptide channel blocker. We use point mutagenesis of both charybdotoxin and a Shaker K+ channel to isolate the electrostatic interaction energy between chosen pairs of residues, one on the channel and one on bound toxin. The results allow estimates of physical(More)