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The relationship between rainfall chemistry and the concentrations of potassium, calcium and magnesium in the apices (top 5 mm) of the cushion-forming; lichen Cladonia portentosa (Dufour) Coem was investigated. Lichen samples, together with underlying topsoil, were collected from heathlands in close proximity to rain gauges in the UK Acid Deposition(More)
Scots pine seedlings were exposed to wet-deposited nickel (Ni) and removal of lichen cover in a dry heath Scots pine forest. Ni deposition affected the colonization of roots by indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in contrasting ways in intact and skimmed quadrats. Highest frequencies of tubercle morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza were found in quadrats exposed to(More)
The impact of experimentally sprayed aqueous nickel solution on the concentrations of potassium, calcium, magnesium and nickel in three horizontal strata (top, 0–20 mm; middle, 20–40 mm; and base, 40–60 mm) of the cushion-forming lichen Cladina stellaris was investigated. The experimental nickel deposition range used corresponded with that from the pristine(More)
Systems for predictive text entry on ambiguous keyboards typically rely on dictionaries with word frequencies which are used to suggest the most likely words matching user input. This approach is insufficient for agglutinative languages, where morphological phenomena increase the rate of out-of-vocabulary words. We propose a method for text entry, which(More)
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