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Like many bacterial pathogens, Salmonella spp. use a type III secretion system to inject virulence proteins into host cells. The Salmonella invasion protein A (SipA) binds host actin, enhances its polymerization near adherent extracellular bacteria, and contributes to cytoskeletal rearrangements that internalize the pathogen. By combining x-ray(More)
Salmonella invasion protein A (SipA) is translocated into host cells by a type III secretion system (T3SS) and comprises two regions: one domain binds its cognate type III secretion chaperone, InvB, in the bacterium to facilitate translocation, while a second domain functions in the host cell, contributing to bacterial uptake by polymerizing actin. We(More)
Translocating proteins across the double membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, type III secretion systems (T3SS) occur in two evolutionarily related forms: injectisomes, delivering virulence factors into host cells, and the flagellar system, secreting the polymeric filament used for motility. While both systems share related elements of a cytoplasmic sorting(More)
A critical molecular interaction during assembly of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules takes place between the heavy chain and the transporter-associated with antigen-processing (TAP) complex. The recent mapping of regions of the heavy chain involved in the binding to TAP suggests a complex molecular interaction essential for the(More)
The latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP)-3 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that binds the small latent complex (SLC) of TGF-beta. Disruption of the Ltbp-3 gene by homologous recombination in mice yields mutant animals that display multiple skeletal abnormalities. In addition, these mice have retarded growth. On an inbred 129 SvEv background, half(More)
Allelic exclusion is inefficient at the TCRalpha locus, allowing a sizeable portion of T cells to carry two functional TCRs. The potential danger of dual TCR expression is a rescue of autoreactive TCRs during selection in the thymus and subsequent development of autoimmunity. In this study, we examine the reason(s) for replacing an autoreactive TCR and for(More)
Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that(More)
Cytotoxicity is a major effector function of CD8(+) T cells. Although mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) / extracellular regulatory kinase (ERK) activity is indispensable for cytotoxic activity of most CD8(+) T cells a portion of CD8(+) T cells appears resistant to MEK inhibition as cytotoxicity of bulk cultures was partially preserved in the(More)
Mice with fibroblast-specific expression of TAP-1 were generated by expressing the TAP-1 transgene under the control of the fibroblast-specific protein (FSP) 1 promoter/enhancer on TAP-1-deficient background. MHC class I expression in primary fibroblast cultures isolated from the resulting strain mimicked that of wild-type counterparts. MHC class I was(More)
A common theme in bacterial disease is the manipulation of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton by pathogenic factors. Understanding how virulence factors operate to achieve these alterations is a growing and important research effort. This review focuses on several virulence factors from the pathogen Salmonella, and considers the contributions of structural biology(More)