Mirjam J. Knol

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Evidence strongly suggests that depression and type 2 diabetes are associated, but the direction of the association is still unclear. Depression may occur as a consequence of having diabetes, but may also be a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes. This study examined the latter association by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis(More)
In randomized controlled trials as well as in observational studies, researchers are often interested in effects of treatment or exposure in different subgroups, i.e. effect modification [1, 2]. There are several methods to assess effect modification and the debate on which method is best is still ongoing [2–5]. In this article we focus on an invalid method(More)
Falls are common in patients with Huntington's disease, but the incidence, falling circumstances and contributing factors have never been examined. We recorded falls in 45 early to midstage Huntington's disease patients, both retrospectively (12 months) and prospectively (3 months). Fall rates were related to relevant baseline measures, including the(More)
This study investigated whether the association between depression and diabetes was influenced by the presence of chronic somatic disease. To distinguish between depression and other psychosocial complaints, we studied the onset of diabetes in antidepressant (AD) users and benzodiazepine (BD) users, respectively. From the PHARMO database, which includes(More)
BACKGROUND To determine the presence of interaction in epidemiologic research, typically a product term is added to the regression model. In linear regression, the regression coefficient of the product term reflects interaction as departure from additivity. However, in logistic regression it refers to interaction as departure from multiplicativity. Rothman(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate if disturbed glucose homeostasis or known diagnosis of diabetes was associated with depressive symptoms. The reason for the increased prevalence of depression in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is unknown. METHODS Within the Utrecht Health Project, an ongoing longitudinal study among inhabitants of a residential area(More)
Authors often do not give sufficient information to draw conclusions about the size and statistical significance of interaction on the additive and multiplicative scales. To improve this, we provide four steps, template tables and examples. We distinguish two cases: when the causal effect of intervening on one exposure, across strata of another factor, is(More)
Obesity and physical inactivity are both risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Since they are strongly associated, it has been suggested that they might interact. In this study, we summarized the evidence on this interaction by conducting a systematic review. Two types of interaction have been discerned, statistical and biological interaction, which could give(More)
Measures of interaction on an additive scale (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI], attributable proportion [AP], synergy index [S]), were developed for risk factors rather than preventive factors. It has been suggested that preventive factors should be recoded to risk factors before calculating these measures. We aimed to show that these measures(More)