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Calcium waves represent a widespread form of intercellular communication. Although they have been thought for a long time to require gap junctions, we recently demonstrated that mouse cortical astrocytes use an extracellular messenger for calcium wave propagation. The present experiments identify ATP as a major extracellular messenger in this system. Medium(More)
Focally evoked calcium waves in astrocyte cultures have been thought to propagate by gap-junction-mediated intercellular passage of chemical signal(s). In contrast to this mechanism we observed isolated astrocytes, which had no physical contact with other astrocytes in the culture, participating in a calcium wave. This observation requires an extracellular(More)
Adaptive changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of goldfish were produced in a few hours by sinusoidally rotating restrained fish in the horizontal plane inside a vertically striped drum. The drum could also be sinusoidally rotated so that the gain of the VOR (the ratio of eye to head angular velocity) would have to increase to two or decrease to zero(More)
A signal associated with the neural command to discharge the electric organ is recorded in cells of the lateral line lobe. Responses of cells activated by medium receptor inputs are facilitated or less frequently inhibited during this command-associated signal. Only responses to disynaptic inputs are affected, the monosynaptic response is not altered. The(More)
The effects of sustained sinusoidal visual stimulation on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the optokinetic reflex (OKR) were investigated. Goldfish were held stationary inside a striped drum rotating sinusoidally about the vertical axis for 3 h. The VOR gain, the ratio of eye to head rotational velocities, was measured in the dark with passive(More)