Learn More
PURPOSE Valproic acid (VPA), one of the widely used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), was recently found to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDAC inhibitors of a wide range of structures, such as hydroxamic acids, carboxylic acids, and cyclic tetrapeptides, have various effects on transformed and nontransformed cells, including neuromodulation and(More)
ARNO is a guanine-nucleotide exchange protein for the ARF family of GTPases. Here we show that in polarized epithelial cells, ARNO is localized exclusively to the apical plasma membrane, where it regulates endocytosis. Expression of ARNO stimulates apical endocytosis of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and coexpression of ARF6 with ARNO leads to a(More)
Correct localization of epileptic foci can improve surgical outcome in patients with drug-resistant seizures. Our aim was to demonstrate that systemically injected nanoparticles identify activated immune cells, which have been reported to accumulate in epileptogenic brain tissue. Fluorescent and magnetite-labeled nanoparticles were injected intravenously to(More)
Amphotericin B (AMB) is an effective antifungal agent. However, its therapeutic use is hampered by its toxicity, mainly due to channel formation across kidney cell membranes and the disruption of postendocytic trafficking. We previously described a safe injectable AMB-arabinogalactan (AG) conjugate with neutralized toxicity. Here we studied the mechanism of(More)
In epithelial cells, the apical junctional complex (AJC), composed of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs), maintains cell-surface polarity by forming a fence that prevents lateral movement and diffusion of proteins and lipids between the apical and basolateral PM and holds the epithelial monolayer intact through cell-cell contacts.(More)
The small-GTPase family of ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) recruit coat proteins to promote vesicle budding. ARFs are activated by an association with sec7-containing exchange factors which load them with GTP. In epithelial cells, the small GTPase ARF6 operates within the endocytic system and has been shown to associate with ARNO to promote apical(More)
Clathrin and caveolins are known for their involvement in the internalization of numerous receptors. Here we show that in polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, both the clathrin machinery and caveolins are involved in the endocytosis and delivery to the plasma membrane (PM) of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). We initially(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major cause of death of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Misdiagnosis of CM often leads to treatment delay and mortality. Conventional brain imaging technologies are rarely applicable in endemic areas. Here we address the unmet need for a simple, non-invasive imaging methodology for early diagnosis of CM. This study presents the(More)
PURPOSE Triphenyl phosphonium cations (TPPs) are delocalized lipophilic cations that accumulate in the mitochondria of cells. We have explore the effect of increasing the number of TPPs on delivery of a cell-impermeable pro-apoptotic peptide to intact cells. METHODS The pro-apoptotic peptide D-(KLAKLAK)(2) (KLA) was extended with 0-3 L-Lysines modified at(More)
Aim: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1; P-glycoprotein) has been associated with efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from tumor cells and with poor patient prognosis. This study evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive, non-radioactive near infrared (NIR) imaging methodology for detection of MDR1 functional activity in tumors. Methods: Initial(More)