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Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) ensures gene-specific regulation and RNA quality control. Structural considerations suggested a requirement for initiation-factor eviction in elongation-factor engagement and pausing of transcription complexes. Here we show that selective inhibition of Cdk7--part of TFIIH--increases TFIIE retention,(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1 is essential for the regulation of transcriptional responses that promote cell survival in response to different types of environmental stimuli in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Upon stress activation, Sty1 reversibly accumulates in the nucleus, where it stimulates gene expression via the Atf1 transcription factor. The(More)
BACKGROUND An excess of caffeine is cytotoxic to all eukaryotic cell types. We aim to study how cells become tolerant to a toxic dose of this drug, and the relationship between caffeine and oxidative stress pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We searched for Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants with inhibited growth on caffeine-containing plates. We(More)
Methylglyoxal, a toxic metabolite synthesized in vivo during glycolysis, inhibits cell growth. One of the mechanisms protecting eukaryotic cells against its toxicity is the glyoxalase system, composed of glyoxalase I and II (glo1 and glo2), which converts methylglyoxal into d-lactic acid in the presence of glutathione. Here we have shown that the two(More)
The folding of genomic DNA from the beads-on-a-string-like structure of nucleosomes into higher-order assemblies is crucially linked to nuclear processes. Here we calculate 3D structures of entire mammalian genomes using data from a new chromosome conformation capture procedure that allows us to first image and then process single cells. The technique(More)
Schizosaccharomyces pombe triggers different signalling pathways depending on the severity of the oxidative stress exerted, the main ones being the Pap1 and the Sty1 pathways. The Pap1 transcription factor is more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than the MAP kinase Sty1 pathway, and is designed to induce adaptation, rather than survival, responses.(More)
In the fission yeast, the MAP kinase Sty1 and the transcription factor Atf1 regulate up to 400 genes in response to environmental signals, and both proteins have been shown to bind to their promoters in a stress-dependent manner. In a genetic search, we have isolated the histone H3 acetyltransferase Gcn5, a component of the SAGA complex, as being essential(More)
Peroxiredoxins are known to interact with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and to participate in oxidant scavenging, redox signal transduction, and heat-shock responses. The two-cysteine peroxiredoxin Tpx1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been characterized as the H(2)O(2) sensor that transduces the redox signal to the transcription factor Pap1. Here, we show(More)
Microorganisms are invariably exposed to abrupt changes in their environment, and consequently display robust, high plasticity gene programmes to respond to stresses. In fission yeast, the Sty1 pathway is activated in response to diverse stress conditions, such as osmotic and oxidative stress, heat shock or nitrogen deprivation. The MAP kinase Sty1 and its(More)