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Since the first description of sound-evoked short-latency myogenic reflexes recorded from neck muscles, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have become an important part of the neuro-otological test battery. VEMPs provide a means of assessing otolith function: stimulation of the vestibular system with air-conducted sound activates predominantly(More)
A recent technique of assessing vestibular function, the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP), is an otolith-mediated, short-latency reflex recorded from averaged sternocleidomastoid electromyography in response to intense auditory clicks delivered via headphones. Since their first description 10 years ago, VEMPs are now being used by investigators(More)
HYPOTHESIS Optimum stimulus parameters for tone burst-evoked myogenic responses can be defined. These optimized responses will be similar to those evoked by clicks in the same subjects. BACKGROUND Loud tones give rise to myogenic responses in the anterior neck muscles, similar to click-evoked potentials, and are likely to be saccular in origin. METHODS(More)
Vestibulospinal and vestibulocollic reflexes evoked by galvanic stimulation were studied in 20 normal volunteers. In an initial "baseline" study, subjects stood unsupported on a flat surface and a narrow base with their eyes shut and with their heads rotated to the left. The effects of vision, external support and increasing stance width were examined both(More)
OBJECTIVES To define normal values and examine the influence of ageing on vestibulocollic reflexes (VCR). METHODS Vestibulocollic responses to 100 dB (normal hearing level; NHL) clicks, forehead taps and galvanic stimulation were measured in 70 healthy adults aged 25-85 years. RESULTS Click- and galvanic-evoked responses were present bilaterally in all(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosis of the superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) relies on symptoms such as sound- or pressure-induced vertigo or oscillopsia, demonstration of sound or pressure-evoked vertical/torsional eye movements, and the presence of a defect in the bony roof overlying the superior semicircular canal. Lowered thresholds for eliciting(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the influence of ageing on electromyographic (EMG) responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in the lower limbs and to define normal values. METHODS EMG responses to 4 mA/20 ms transmastoid binaural GVS were recorded from the soleus muscles of 70 healthy adults aged 24-85 years. Short (SL) and medium latency (ML)(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP and cVEMP) profile in Ménière's Disease (MD), we studied air-conducted (AC) sound and bone-conducted vibration (BCV)-evoked responses in 77 patients and 35 controls. METHODS oVEMPs were recorded from unrectified infra-orbital surface electromyography (EMG) during(More)
OBJECTIVES It can be difficult to distinguish vestibular migraine (VM) from Menière's disease (MD) in its early stages. Using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), we sought to identify test parameters that would help discriminate between these two vestibular disorders. METHODS We first recorded ocular and cervical VEMPs (oVEMP/cVEMP) to(More)
OBJECTIVE Sound and vibration evoke a short-latency eye movement or "sound-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex" (VOR) and an infraorbital surface potential: the "ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential" (OVEMP). We examined their relationship by measuring the modulation of both responses by gaze and stimulus parameters. METHODS In seven subjects with(More)