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UNLABELLED A mechanistic understanding of the purported health benefits conferred by consumption of probiotic bacteria has been limited by our knowledge of the resident gut microbiota and its interaction with the host. Here, we detail the impact of a single-organism probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG), on the structure and functional(More)
BACKGROUND Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 1×1010 colony(More)
The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is mainly concentrated to resources-limited countries where the response to available antiretroviral therapy is often limited by the occurrence of toxicity or by the emergence of HIV drug resistance. Efavirenz and nevirapine are the antiretroviral drugs most prescribed in resources-limited countries as part(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (Cng) is the most common cause of fungal meningitis, and its prevalence is highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Patients become infected by inhaling airborne spores or desiccated yeast cells from the environment, where the fungus thrives in avian droppings, trees and soil. To investigate the prevalence and population structure(More)
There is a paucity of research demonstrating how HIV-funded services in Africa have improved equity and access to non-HIV services for both HIV-infected and uninfected patients. In this short communication, we describe the impact of an airborne outreach program to provide HIV services to high-HIV burden health facilities in rural Botswana. The analysis(More)
BACKGROUND Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected individuals in Africa. Poor outcomes from conventional antifungal therapies, unavailability of flucytosine, and difficulties administering 14 days of amphotericin B are key drivers of this mortality. Novel treatment regimes are needed. This study examines whether(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, 95% of women in Botswana delivered in health facilities with 73% attending at least 4 antenatal care visits. HIV-prevalence in pregnant women was 28.7%. The maternal mortality ratio in 2010 was 163 deaths per 100,000 live births versus the government target of 130 for that year, indicating that the Millennium Development Goal 5 was(More)
UNLABELLED We examined gene expression of whole blood cells (WBC) from 11 healthy elderly volunteers participating on a Phase I open label study before and after oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-ATCC 53103 (LGG)) using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Elderly patients (65-80 yrs) completed a clinical assessment for health status and had blood drawn(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes approximately 625,000 deaths per year from nervous system infections. Here, we leveraged a unique, genetically diverse population of C. neoformans from sub-Saharan Africa, commonly isolated from mopane trees, to determine how selective pressures in the environment coincidentally adapted(More)
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