Miriam Garland

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Few studies have examined whether activity and adiposity levels typical of American women affect their risk of ovulatory disorder infertility, and none has examined moderate and vigorous intensity exercise separately. We investigated these associations in the Nurses' Health Study II, comparing prospectively collected data on adiposity and activity for 830(More)
BACKGROUND Inverse associations between selenium status and cancer risk have been observed in animal studies, ecologic studies, and some case-control and prospective studies. Whereas results of some prospective studies have suggested an overall inverse relationship between selenium levels and cancer, other prospective studies have failed to confirm this(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether genotypes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes A, C, or D or intersubtype recombinants have the same probability of being transmitted from mother to child. METHODS We determined the HIV-1 genetic subtype and maternal risk factors of 51 matched transmitting and nontransmitting mothers from Tanzania. The(More)
A common deletion polymorphism in the gene coding for the glutathione S-transferase class mu (the GSTM1 gene) results in a decreased ability to detoxify carcinogenic epoxide intermediates and has been associated with increased breast cancer risk in some small studies. We studied the GSTM1 gene deletion polymorphism (conferring the null genotype) in 243(More)
We assessed the reproducibility over a 6-year period of 16 trace elements measured in toenails by comparing levels in paired specimens collected in 1982-1983 and 1988 from 127 women in the United States. The Spearman correlation coefficients for the reproducibility of toenail levels of selenium and arsenic (both known to reflect intake of these elements)(More)
The associations between toenail levels of five trace elements and breast cancer risk were studied among a cohort of 62,641 US women who provided toenail clippings and were free from diagnosed breast cancer in 1982. Among 433 cases of breast cancer identified during 4 years of follow-up and their matched controls, the odds ratios comparing the highest with(More)
Menstrual cycle characteristics and ovulatory infertility were evaluated in relation to breast cancer risk among 116,678 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study of female registered nurses who were aged 25-42 years and living in 14 US states at enrollment in 1989. During 396,299 person-years of follow-up between return of the(More)
BACKGROUND Observational studies suggest that poor nutritional status among HIV-infected pregnant women is associated with a higher risk of vertical transmission of HIV. METHODS We randomized 1083 pregnant women infected with HIV-1 in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of supplements of vitamin A and/or multivitamins(More)
We evaluated current and past alcohol consumption prospectively in relation to breast cancer risk among 116,671 women ages 25-42 years old at enrollment in 1989. During 6 years of follow-up, 445 cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. For alcohol consumption in the previous year, the multivariate relative risk associated with more than 20 g/day(More)
We compared fatty acid amounts in adipose tissue with fatty acid intake calculated from 2 separate weeks of diet recording and two food-frequency questionnaires for 140 participants in the Nurses' Health Study. Our results showed that the amounts of polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids in adipose tissue reflect dietary intake and confirm those of previous(More)