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We investigated the properties of leishmania exosomes with respect to influencing innate and adaptive immune responses. Exosomes from Leishmania donovani modulated human monocyte cytokine responses to IFN-γ in a bimodal fashion by promoting IL-10 production and inhibiting that of TNF-α. Moreover, these vesicles were inhibitory with respect to cytokine… (More)
BACKGROUND Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, still pose an enormous public health problem in many countries throughout the world. Current measures are outdated and have some associated drug resistance, prompting the search into novel therapies. Several innovative approaches are under investigation, including the utilization of host defence peptides… (More)
The landmark completion of the Leishmania major genome sequence and the recent publication of the L. infantum and L. braziliensis genomes revealed the surprising result that, although separated by 15-50 million years of evolution, the Leishmania genomes are highly conserved and have less than 1% species-specific genes. Yet, these three species of Leishmania… (More)
AIMS Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is responsible for a disproportionate number of breast cancer (BC) deaths, owing to its intrinsic aggressiveness and a lack of treatment options, especially targeted therapies. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of better targeted treatments for TNBC. Molecular alteration of AKT-3 was previously… (More)
UNLABELLED Leishmaniasis, caused by infection with Leishmania, is a major public health concern affecting more than 20million people globally. Leishmania has a digenetic lifecycle consisting of an extracellular flagellated promastigote, adapted to live in the mid-gut of the sand fly host and an aflagellated intracellular amastigote that resides within the… (More)
Leishmania parasites, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, have a digenetic lifecycle consisting of the morphologically distinct insect vector stage (promastigote) and the mammalian infective amastigote stage. Differentiation of promastigotes to the amastigote stage involves significant morphological and biochemical changes, however, very few genes have… (More)
Perforation of an intraaortic balloon is a well recognised complication of the device and is usually due to abrasion by a calcified aortic atheromatous plaque. We report a case in which a replacement balloon also perforated and suggest that if continued balloon assistance is required, a lower perfill volume may prevent damage to the second balloon.