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The validity of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), one of the measures used to assess parental child feeding practices and attitudes, has been confirmed in American populations. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test the validity and factor structure of the translated version of the CFQ among parents of Japanese elementary school children. The(More)
BACKGROUND Low birth weight (LBW) infants do not form a homogeneous group; LBW can be caused by prematurity or poor fetal growth manifesting as small for gestational age (SGA) infants or intrauterine growth retardation. We aimed to clarify the relationship of maternal smoking with both SGA and preterm LBW infants. METHODS The study population comprised(More)
BACKGROUND Although maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to have an effect on childhood overweight/obesity, the impact of maternal smoking on the trajectory of the body mass of their offspring is not very clear. Previously, we investigated this effect by using a fixed-effect model. However, this analysis was limited because it rounded and(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction and childhood obesity, but only a few studies have examined the association of smoking cessation before and during pregnancy with fetal and childhood growth. We examined this association in a prospective cohort study in Japan. METHODS Our study included(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that a number of factors related to maternal lifestyle during early pregnancy, including smoking, are associated with childhood obesity at 5 years of age. In the present study, we investigated whether the association with maternal smoking persisted to the age of 9-10 years. METHODS The study population comprised children(More)
BACKGROUND The aims of this study were to 1) determine the distinct patterns of body mass index (BMI) trajectories in Japanese children, and 2) elucidate the maternal factors during pregnancy, which contribute to the determination of those patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS All of the children (1,644 individuals) born in Koshu City, Japan, between(More)
BACKGROUND Cytokines in breast milk may play crucial roles in the beneficial effects of breastfeeding in protecting against allergic and infectious diseases in infants. In particular, breast milk-borne transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) has an important potential role in developing the mucosal immune system in infants. However, little is known about(More)
BACKGROUND A trend towards earlier pubertal growth has been identified along with an increase in childhood obesity rates. The study aimed to identify the differences in growth patterns during adolescence between overweight/obese and non-overweight children in Japan. METHODS The participants were children from a prospective cohort study called Project(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking during pregnancy is related to fetal constraint and accelerated postnatal growth. However, the pathways between these factors have not been clarified. Pathway analyses that link these factors can help us better understand the mechanisms involved in this association. Therefore, this study aimed to examine pathways between maternal smoking(More)
AIM This study aimed to clarify the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight during different periods using two cohort studies from the same population: the birth cohort (the 1st cohort) and the non-overweight children at 5 years of age cohort (the 2nd cohort) by sex. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study population(More)