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The validity of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), one of the measures used to assess parental child feeding practices and attitudes, has been confirmed in American populations. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test the validity and factor structure of the translated version of the CFQ among parents of Japanese elementary school children. The(More)
BACKGROUND Although maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to have an effect on childhood overweight/obesity, the impact of maternal smoking on the trajectory of the body mass of their offspring is not very clear. Previously, we investigated this effect by using a fixed-effect model. However, this analysis was limited because it rounded and(More)
BACKGROUND Low birth weight (LBW) infants do not form a homogeneous group; LBW can be caused by prematurity or poor fetal growth manifesting as small for gestational age (SGA) infants or intrauterine growth retardation. We aimed to clarify the relationship of maternal smoking with both SGA and preterm LBW infants. METHODS The study population comprised(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that a number of factors related to maternal lifestyle during early pregnancy, including smoking, are associated with childhood obesity at 5 years of age. In the present study, we investigated whether the association with maternal smoking persisted to the age of 9-10 years. METHODS The study population comprised children(More)
BACKGROUND The aims of this study were to 1) determine the distinct patterns of body mass index (BMI) trajectories in Japanese children, and 2) elucidate the maternal factors during pregnancy, which contribute to the determination of those patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS All of the children (1,644 individuals) born in Koshu City, Japan, between(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction and childhood obesity, but only a few studies have examined the association of smoking cessation before and during pregnancy with fetal and childhood growth. We examined this association in a prospective cohort study in Japan. METHODS Our study included(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking during pregnancy is related to fetal constraint and accelerated postnatal growth. However, the pathways between these factors have not been clarified. Pathway analyses that link these factors can help us better understand the mechanisms involved in this association. Therefore, this study aimed to examine pathways between maternal smoking(More)
BACKGROUND Determining standard pubertal growth patterns using longitudinal anthropometric measures is important in growth assessment. We used an appropriate repeated-measurements method to identify height growth patterns in Japanese school-aged girls and boys. METHODS The participants were children born during the period from 1991 through 1999 who had(More)
BACKGROUND There has been no large nationwide population-based study to examine the effects of maternal smoking status during pregnancy on birth weight that simultaneously controlled for clinical information, socioeconomic status, and maternal weight. Thus, this study aimed to determine the association between maternal smoking status during pregnancy and(More)
Pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy are significantly associated with fetal and childhood growth. However, few studies have examined associations between childhood growth and combinations of these factors using multilevel analysis. This study aimed to describe differences in childhood growth trajectories according to these(More)