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To investigate the influence of tumor cell architecture on T-cell activation, we used an autologous human model based on 2 bladder tumor cell lines as targets for cytotoxic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). These tumor cell lines were grown in vitro as either standard 2-dimensional (2D) monolayers or 3-dimensional (3D) spheroids. T-cell activation was… (More)
Before it was 10 minutes old, a human neonate was able to turn its eyes in the direction of an auditory stimulus. This demonstrates that learning is not essential for a crude form of auditory localization, directional oculomotor response, and coordination of auditory and visual functioning.
In order to assess the effect of in vitro models on the expression of key genes known to be implicated in the development or progression of cancer, we quantified by real-time quantitative PCR the expression of 28 key genes in three bladder cancer tissue specimens and in their derived cell lines, studied either as one-dimensional single cell suspensions,… (More)
The beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG beta) is markedly overexpressed by neoplastic cells of differing histological origin including those present in colon, breast, prostate and bladder tumors. We have previously shown that some patients with hCG beta-producing urothelial tumors have circulating T cells that proliferate in response to hCG… (More)