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In recent years, previously unsuspected roles of astrocytes have been revealed, largely owing to the development of new tools enabling their selective study in situ. These exciting findings add to the large body of evidence demonstrating that astrocytes play a central role in brain homeostasis, in particular via the numerous cooperative metabolic processes(More)
Astrocytes are the main neural cell type responsible for the maintenance of brain homeostasis. They form highly organized anatomical domains that are interconnected into extensive networks. These features, along with the expression of a wide array of receptors, transporters, and ion channels, ideally position them to sense and dynamically modulate neuronal(More)
The energy requirements of the brain are very high, and tight regulatory mechanisms operate to ensure adequate spatial and temporal delivery of energy substrates in register with neuronal activity. Astrocytes-a type of glial cell-have emerged as active players in brain energy delivery, production, utilization, and storage. Our understanding of(More)
Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and exert various toxic effects on neurons; however, relatively little is known about their influence on glial cells. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in brain homeostasis, contributing to the regulation of local energy metabolism and oxidative stress defense, two aspects(More)
Glucose is the main energy substrate for the brain. There is now extensive evidence indicating that the metabolic profile of neural cells with regard to glucose utilization and glycolysis rate is not homogenous, with a marked propensity for glycolytic glucose processing in astrocytes compared to neurons. Methylglyoxal, a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound,(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Acute liver failure (ALF) due to ischemic or toxic liver injury is a clinical condition that results from massive loss of hepatocytes and may lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a serious neuropsychiatric complication. Although increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in liver, plasma and brain has been observed,(More)
The availability of adequate experimental models of acute liver failure (ALF) is of prime importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and allow the development and testing of new therapeutic approaches for patients with ALF. However, the numerous etiologies and complications of ALF contribute to the complexity of this condition and render(More)
We have previously reported that the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induce profound modifications of the metabolic profile of astrocytes. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the effects of cytokines in astrocytes and to determine whether similar effects could also be observed in(More)
Molecular biological approaches continue to lead to the identification of alterations in expression of genes coding for key central nervous system proteins involved in water homeostasis, energy metabolism and neurotransmitter regulation in acute liver failure (ALF). However, studies aimed at elucidating the pathophysiological consequences of these changes(More)
Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) is a major component of the glial filament network and alterations in expression of this protein in cultured astrocytes have been reported in response to acute ammonia exposure in vitro. In order to determine the effects of acute hyperammonemia in vivo on GFAP expression, brain extracts from rats with acute liver failure(More)