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The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-related kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2, regulate cellular responses by mediating extracellular growth signals toward cytoplasmic and nuclear targets. A potential target for ERK is topoisomerase IIalpha, which becomes highly phosphorylated during mitosis and is required for several aspects of(More)
DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for driving and stabilizing cell-fate decisions. Local deposition and removal of DNA methylation are tightly coupled with transcription factor binding, although the relationship varies with the specific differentiation process. Conversion of monocytes to osteoclasts is a unique terminal differentiation process(More)
Monocyte-to-osteoclast conversion is a unique terminal differentiation process that is exacerbated in rheumatoid arthritis and bone metastasis. The mechanisms implicated in upregulating osteoclast-specific genes involve transcription factors, epigenetic regulators and microRNAs (miRNAs). It is less well known how downregulation of osteoclast-inappropriate(More)
To obtain stable and constitutive expression of histone H5 at levels comparable to those observed in normal chicken erythrocytes, an avian self-inactivating retroviral vector was used to transfer the H5 gene into cells which do not express this protein. The vector, pDAH5, was obtained by removing the CAAT and TATA boxes of the 3'LTR of the avian leukosis(More)
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