Miranda D. Gray

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Shiga toxins (Stx) are cytotoxins involved in severe human intestinal disease. These toxins are commonly found in Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli; however, the toxin genes have been found in other Shigella species. We identified 26 Shigella flexneri serotype 2 strains isolated by public health laboratories in the(More)
Secretion of cholera toxin and other virulence factors from Vibrio cholerae is mediated by the type II secretion (T2S) apparatus, a multiprotein complex composed of both inner and outer membrane proteins. To better understand the mechanism by which the T2S complex coordinates translocation of its substrates, we are examining the protein-protein interactions(More)
The type II secretion system is a multi-protein complex that spans the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria and promotes the secretion of proteins, including several virulence factors. This system is homologous to the type IV pilus biogenesis machinery and contains five proteins, EpsG-K, termed the pseudopilins that are structurally homologous to the(More)
The pseudopilus is a key feature of the type 2 secretion system (T2SS) and is made up of multiple pseudopilins that are similar in fold to the type 4 pilins. However, pilins have disulfide bridges, whereas the major pseudopilins of T2SS do not. A key question is therefore how the pseudopilins, and in particular, the most abundant major pseudopilin, GspG,(More)
A wide range of chemotherapeutic agents has been identified that are active against solid tumors. However, resistance remains an important obstacle to the development of curative regimens. Whereas much attention has been paid to acquired drug resistance, a variety of physiological pathways also have been described that reduce the sensitivity of previously(More)
ToxR-dependent recruitment of TcpP to the toxT promoter facilitates toxT transcription in Vibrio cholerae, initiating a regulatory cascade that culminates in cholera toxin expression and secretion. Although TcpP usually requires ToxR to activate the toxT promoter, TcpP overexpression can circumvent the requirement for ToxR in this process. To define(More)
IMR-90 human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) lose from 30-50% of their genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine (5mdC) during the cellular aging process. In contrast, immortal SV40-transformed IMR-90 maintain a constant level of 5mdC in culture. Precrisis SV40-transformed HDF (AG3204) represent a stage in between normal cell aging and immortalization because these cells(More)
Shiga toxins (Stx) are commonly produced by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and Stx-producing Escherichia coli. However, the toxin genes have been detected in additional Shigella species. We recently reported the emergence of Stx-producing Shigella in travelers in the United States and France who had recently visited Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican(More)
The type II secretion system (T2SS) is used by Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacteria to translocate many proteins, including toxins and proteases, across the outer membrane of the cell and into the extracellular space. Depending on the bacterial species, between 12 and 15 genes have been identified that make up a T2SS operon. T2SSs are(More)