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Although retinal bipolar cells represent a morphologically well defined population of retinal interneurons, very little is known about the developmental mechanisms that regulate their processing. Furthermore, the identity of specific bipolar cell types that function in distinct visual circuits remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the homeobox gene(More)
receive dense connections from nearby parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking interneurons known as basket cells (green). More distant basket cells are not connected (purple). The extraordinarily dense axonal arborization of a basket cell (green lines) underlies the dense inhibition these cells provide to balance the majority of nearby excitatory neurons in an(More)
Endocytic adaptor protein Numb is the first identified cell fate determinant in Drosophila melanogaster. It has been implicated in Notch signaling pathway and regulation of neural stem cells proliferation in the central nervous system. Numb is also expressed in postmitotic neurons, in vitro studies showed that Numb is involved in neuronal morphologic(More)
Numb is an endocytic protein that plays crucial roles in diverse cellular processes such as asymmetric cell division, cell migration and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism by which Numb regulates endocytic trafficking is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Numb is a docking regulator for homotypic fusion of early endosomes (EEs).(More)
Transferrin receptor (TFR) is an important iron transporter regulating iron homeostasis and has long been used as a marker for clathrin mediated endocytosis. However, little is known about its additional function other than iron transport in the development of central nervous system (CNS). Here we demonstrate that TFR functions as a regulator to control(More)
The heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gsα couples receptors to activate adenylyl cyclase and is required for the intracellular cAMP response and protein kinase A (PKA) activation. Gsα is ubiquitously expressed in many cell types; however, the role of Gsα in neural crest cells (NCCs) remains unclear. Here we report that NCCs-specific Gsα knockout mice die(More)
Asymmetric cell division, which plays fundamental roles in generating cell diversity during development, requires elaborate interactions between extrinsic cues and intrinsic cues. However, the precise nature of this type of interaction and its involving signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Gαs is present in the proliferative(More)
Interneuronal subtype diversity lies at the heart of the distinct molecular properties and synaptic connections that shape the formation of the neuronal circuits that are necessary for the complex spatial and temporal processing of sensory information. Here, we investigate the role of Irx6, a member of the Iroquois homeodomain transcription factor family,(More)
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