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Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism that mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. We report a potent small molecule inhibitor of autophagy named "spautin-1" for specific and potent autophagy inhibitor-1. Spautin-1 promotes the degradation of Vps34 PI3 kinase complexes by inhibiting two ubiquitin-specific(More)
The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent catabolite repression effect in Escherichia coli is among the most intensely studied regulatory processes in biology. However, the physiological function(s) of cAMP signalling and its molecular triggers remain elusive. Here we use a quantitative physiological approach to show that cAMP signalling tightly coordinates the(More)
—A 201.4 GOPS real-time multi-object recognition processor is presented with a three-stage pipelined architecture. Visual perception based multi-object recognition algorithm is applied to give multiple attentions to multiple objects in the input image. For human-like multi-object perception, a neural perception engine is proposed with biologically inspired(More)
Fast and robust object recognition of cluttered scenes presents two main challenges: (1) the large number of features to process requires high computational power, and (2) false matches from background clutter can degrade recognition accuracy. Previously, saliency based bottom-up visual attention [1,2] increased recognition speed by confining the(More)
The visual attention algorithm of the human visual system [1] is utilized to reduce the complexity of object recognition by decreasing the amount of image data to be processed. As Fig. 16.2.1 illustrates, salient parts of a scene are roughly selected by the visual attention mechanism in advance so that next visual processing can focus on only the(More)
Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) complexes, the class III PtdIns3 kinase, specifically phosphorylate the D3 position of PtdIns to produce PtdIns3P. Vps34 is involved in the control of multiple key intracellular membrane trafficking pathways including endocytic sorting and autophagy. In mammalian cells, Vps34 interacts with Beclin 1, an ortholog of Atg6(More)
The visual attention mechanism, which is the way humans perform object recognition [1], was applied to the implementation of a high performance object recognition chip [2]. Even though the previous chip achieved 50% gain of computational cost [2], it could recognize only one object in a frame so that it is not suitable for advanced multi-object recognition(More)
Even though visual attention models using bottom-up saliency can speed up object recognition by predicting object locations, in the presence of multiple salient objects, saliency alone cannot discern target objects from the clutter in a scene. Using a metric named familiarity, we propose a top-down method for guiding attention towards target objects, in(More)