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Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism that mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. We report a potent small molecule inhibitor of autophagy named "spautin-1" for specific and potent autophagy inhibitor-1. Spautin-1 promotes the degradation of Vps34 PI3 kinase complexes by inhibiting two ubiquitin-specific(More)
Single-particle tracking was used to measure the diffusion in aqueous suspension of dilute colloidal clusters, 2-9 mum in size, fabricated by joining 1.57 mum spheres into planar arrangements of various particle numbers and symmetries (doublet, trimer, square, pentamer, hexamer, and so forth). They were allowed to sediment close to a glass surface and their(More)
Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) complexes, the class III PtdIns3 kinase, specifically phosphorylate the D3 position of PtdIns to produce PtdIns3P. Vps34 is involved in the control of multiple key intracellular membrane trafficking pathways including endocytic sorting and autophagy. In mammalian cells, Vps34 interacts with Beclin 1, an ortholog of Atg6(More)
Coating a close-packed fluorescent colloid monolayer with a nanometer-thick metal film followed by sonication in liquid produces modulated optical nanoprobes. The metal coating modulates the fluorescence as these structures rotate in suspension, enabling the use of these particles as probes to monitor both rotational and center-of-mass (translational)(More)
We performed a nanoscale confocal absorption spectral imaging to obtain the full absorption spectra (over the range 1.5-3.2 eV) within regions having different numbers of layers and studied the variation of optical transition depending on the atomic thickness of the MoS2 film. Three distinct absorption bands corresponding to A and B excitons and a(More)
mRNA expression involves transcription initiation, elongation and degradation. In cells, these dynamic processes are highly regulated. However, experimental characterization of the dynamic processes in vivo is difficult due to the paucity of methods capable of direct measurements. We present a highly sensitive and versatile method enabling direct(More)
Missense mutations in the gene TP53, which encodes p53, one of the most important tumor suppressors, are common in human cancers. Accumulated mutant p53 proteins are known to actively contribute to tumor development and metastasis. Thus, promoting the removal of mutant p53 proteins in cancer cells may have therapeutic significance. Here we investigated the(More)
UNLABELLED A key regulator of swarming in Proteus mirabilis is the Rcs phosphorelay, which represses flhDC, encoding the master flagellar regulator FlhD4C2. Mutants in rcsB, the response regulator in the Rcs phosphorelay, hyperswarm on solid agar and differentiate into swarmer cells in liquid, demonstrating that this system also influences the expression of(More)
We describe algorithms and an experimental method based on differential interference contrast microscopy to discriminate optically anisotropic colloidal spheres under situations where diffraction owing to their close proximity causes overlapping images. The data analysis is applied to modulated optical nanoprobes (MOONs) that are coated with metal on one(More)