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The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), costs the Chinese economy US$0.77 billion annually, and considerable research has focused on its biology, ecology, and management. Much of this research has been published locally and is inaccessible outside China. Since 1990 Brassica vegetable production has increased 20-fold and production practices(More)
Chronic ethanol feeding causes liver steatosis in animal models by upregulating the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), which subsequently increases the synthesis of hepatic lipid. SREBP-1 activity is regulated by reversible acetylation at specific lysine residues. The present study tests the hypothesis that activation of SREBP-1 by(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Our previous work has shown that ethanol induces the fatty acid synthesis pathway by activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1). In the present study, we studied the mechanisms of this activation by identifying a new target of ethanol, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). METHODS The effects of ethanol on AMPK,(More)
The majority of melanoma cells do not express argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), and hence cannot synthesize arginine from citrulline. Their growth and proliferation depend on exogenous supply of arginine. Arginine degradation using arginine deiminase (ADI) leads to growth inhibition and eventually cell death while normal cell which express ASS can(More)
How an insect evolves to become a successful herbivore is of profound biological and practical importance. Herbivores are often adapted to feed on a specific group of evolutionarily and biochemically related host plants, but the genetic and molecular bases for adaptation to plant defense compounds remain poorly understood. We report the first whole-genome(More)
Alcoholic fatty liver is the earliest and most common response of the liver to alcohol and may be a precursor of more severe forms of liver injury. The mechanism by which ethanol causes fatty liver and liver injury is complex. We found that in both rat H4IIEC3 and McA-RH7777 hepatoma cell lines, ethanol induced transcription of a sterol regulatory(More)
Certain cancers may be auxotrophic for a particular amino acid, and amino acid deprivation is one method to treat these tumors. Arginine deprivation is a novel approach to target tumors which lack argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression. ASS is a key enzyme which converts citrulline to arginine. Tumors which usually do not express ASS include(More)
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) are responsible for metabolizing the bulk of ethanol consumed as part of the diet and their activities contribute to the rate of ethanol elimination from the blood. They are expressed at highest levels in liver, but at lower levels in many tissues. This pathway probably evolved as(More)
Ethanol-mediated inhibition of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of this inhibition by identifying a new hepatic target of ethanol action, microRNA-217 (miR-217). The role of miR-217 in the regulation of the effects of ethanol was investigated(More)
Alcoholic fatty liver is associated with inhibition of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), two critical signaling molecules regulating the pathways of hepatic lipid metabolism in animals. Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol, has been identified as a potent activator for both SIRT1 and AMPK. In the present study, we have carried out in vivo(More)