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Two large-scale yeast two-hybrid screens were undertaken to identify protein-protein interactions between full-length open reading frames predicted from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequence. In one approach, we constructed a protein array of about 6,000 yeast transformants, with each transformant expressing one of the open reading frames as a fusion(More)
Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Mouse models with face validity to the core symptoms offer an experimental approach to test hypotheses about the causes of autism and translational tools to evaluate potential treatments. We discovered that the inbred mouse strain BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) incorporates multiple(More)
The plant hormone auxin regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development. We report that in Arabidopsis, auxin response is dependent on a ubiquitin-ligase (E3) complex called SCFTIR1. The complex consists of proteins related to yeast Skp1p and Cdc53p called ASK and AtCUL1, respectively, as well as the F-box protein TIR1. Mutations in either ASK1 or(More)
The central complex is an important center for higher-order brain function in insects. It is an intricate neuropil composed of four substructures. Each substructure contains repeated neuronal elements which are connected by processes such that topography is maintained. Although the neuronal architecture has been described in several insects and the(More)
The yeast and human SKP1 genes regulate the mitotic cell cycle but are not yet known to be required for meiosis. Nine Arabidopsis SKP1 homologues have been uncovered and are named ASK1 through ASK9. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a male sterile Arabidopsis mutant and show that the mutant defect was caused by a Ds transposon insertion(More)
A 14nm logic technology using 2 nd-generation FinFET transistors with a novel subfin doping technique, self-aligned double patterning (SADP) for critical patterning layers, and air-gapped interconnects at performance-critical layers is described. The transistors feature rectangular fins with 8nm fin width and 42nm fin height, 4 th generation high-k metal(More)
SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors) and N-CoR (nuclear receptor copressor) mediate transcriptional repression of important regulators that are involved in many signaling pathways. SMRT and N-CoR are related proteins that form complexes with mSin3A/B and histone deacetylases to induce local chromatin condensation and(More)
Exposure of rats to a cat odor block in a previously familiarized situation was followed by three extinction days to the same or a different situation, and with or without an identical but odor-free block, and, testing in the original apparatus with an odor-free block (cue). Initial exposure produced risk assessment (stretch attend), avoidance of the block,(More)
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including low social(More)
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been directly implicated in developmental and physiological processes, as well as in human cancer, fibrotic diseases and arteriosclerosis. The PDGF family currently consists of at least three gene products, PDGF-A, PDGF-B and PDGF-C, which selectively signal through two PDGF receptors (PDGFRs) to regulate diverse(More)