Minoru Watanabe

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Extracellular levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the nervous system are maintained by transporters that actively remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Homozygous mice deficient in GLT-1, a widely distributed astrocytic glutamate transporter, show lethal spontaneous seizures and increased susceptibility to acute cortical injury.(More)
The glutamate transporter GLAST is localized on the cell membrane of mature astrocytes and is also expressed in the ventricular zone of developing brains. To characterize and follow the GLAST-expressing cells during development, we examined the mouse spinal cord by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. At embryonic day (E) 11 and E13, cells(More)
We have examined the seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana of wild type (wt), and phytochrome A (PhyA)- and B (PhyB)-mutants in terms of incubation time and environmental light effects. Seed germination of the wt and PhyA-null mutant (phyA) was photoreversibly regulated by red and far-red lights of 10-1,000 micromol m-2 when incubated in darkness for(More)
To study the function of GLAST, a glutamate transporter highly expressed in the cerebellar Bergmann astrocytes, the mouse GLAST gene was inactivated. GLAST-deficient mice developed normally and could manage simple coordinated tasks, such as staying on a stationary or a slowly rotating rod, but failed more challenging task such as staying on a quickly(More)
Hippocampal synapses express two distinct forms of the long-term potentiation (LTP), i.e. NMDA receptor-dependent and -independent LTPs. To understand its molecular-anatomical basis, we produced affinity-purified antibodies against the GluRepsilon1 (NR2A), GluRepsilon2 (NR2B), and GluRzeta1 (NR1) subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel,(More)
In situ hybridization analyses have revealed drastic changes in expression and distribution of five subunit mRNAs of the mouse NMDA receptor channel during brain development. The epsilon 1 subunit mRNA is expressed postnatally and widely in the brain. On the other hand, the epsilon 2 subunit mRNA is found throughout the entire embryonic brain, but its(More)
In Brassica, two self-incompatibility genes, encoding SLG (S locus glycoprotein) and SRK (S-receptor kinase), are located at the S locus and expressed in the stigma. Recent molecular analysis has revealed that the S locus is highly polymorphic and contains several genes, i.e., SLG, SRK, the as-yet-unidentified pollen S gene(s), and other linked genes. In(More)
The left-right (L-R) asymmetric expression of lefty2 and nodal is controlled by a left side-specific enhancer (ASE). The transcription factor FAST2, which can mediate signaling by TGF beta and activin, has now been identified as a protein that binds to a conserved sequence in ASE. These FAST2 binding sites were both essential and sufficient for L-R(More)
The self-incompatibility possessed by Brassica is an intraspecific reproductive barrier by which the stigma rejects self-pollen but accepts non-self-pollen for fertilization. The molecular/biochemical bases of recognition and rejection have been intensively studied. Self-incompatibility in Brassica is sporophytically controlled by the polymorphic S locus.(More)
Associations between genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 and prostate cancer (PCa) were analyzed in a case-control study of 315 individuals. The frequency of valine (Val)/valine (Val) genotypes for CYP1A1 was 11.3% in cases compared with 5.5% in controls, this polymorphism thus being associated with a significantly increased(More)