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The human toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway is activated in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and subsequent signal transductions lead to the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by innate immune cells. Defects in innate immune response may contribute to the overproduction of TNF-alpha leading to systemic(More)
BACKGROUND Cytoplasmic filamentous rods and rings (RR) structures were identified using human autoantibodies as probes. In the present study, the formation of these conserved structures in mammalian cells and functions linked to these structures were examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Distinct cytoplasmic rods (∼3-10 µm in length) and rings (∼2-5 µm(More)
INTRODUCTION MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression via degradation or translational repression of their targeted mRNAs. It is known that aberrant microRNA expression can play important roles in cancer, but the role of microRNAs in autoimmune diseases is only beginning to emerge. In this study, the expression of(More)
BACKGROUND An inflammatory process may be one of the critical factors that contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We reported previously that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is up-regulated and promotes macrophage infiltration in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase(More)
Intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2,6,10,14 tetramethylpentadecane) is a standard technique for obtaining monoclonal antibody-enriched ascitic fluid. However, pristane also induces plasmacytomas and an erosive arthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in BALB/c mice, probably as a consequence of enhanced interleukin 6 production. We report here that(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs about 21 nucleotides in length. miRNAs have been shown to regulate gene expression and thus influence a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, they are detected in a variety of sources, including tissues, serum, and other body fluids, such as saliva. The role of(More)
Pristane induces a lupus-like syndrome in nonautoimmune mice characterized by the development of glomerulonephritis and lupus-associated autoantibodies. This is accompanied by overproduction of interleukin (IL)-6, a cytokine linked with autoimmune phenomena. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-6 in autoantibody production in(More)
The Ku autoantigen is a heterodimer of 70- and 80-kD proteins recognized by autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases that is the DNA-binding component of a DNA-dependent protein kinase. The catalytic activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase is carried by a 350-kD subunit (p350). In light of the recently described(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that is involved in the post-transcriptional silencing of genes. This process elicits the degradation or translational inhibition of mRNAs based on the complementarity with short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs). Recently, differential expression of specific miRNAs and(More)
Increased type I interferon (IFN-I) production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression are linked to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although the mechanisms responsible for dysregulated IFN-I production in SLE remain unclear, autoantibody-mediated uptake of endogenous nucleic acids is thought to play a role.(More)