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The GW182 RNA-binding protein was initially shown to associate with a specific subset of mRNAs and to reside within discrete cytoplasmic foci named GW bodies (GWBs). GWBs are enriched in proteins that are involved in mRNA degradation. Recent reports have shown that exogenously introduced human Argonaute-2 (Ago2) is also enriched in GWBs, indicating that RNA(More)
INTRODUCTION MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression via degradation or translational repression of their targeted mRNAs. It is known that aberrant microRNA expression can play important roles in cancer, but the role of microRNAs in autoimmune diseases is only beginning to emerge. In this study, the expression of(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in innate immune cells are the prime cellular sensors for microbial components. TLR activation leads to the production of proinflammatory mediators and thus TLR signaling must be properly regulated by various mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. TLR4-ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tolerance or cross-tolerance is one such(More)
The human toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway is activated in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and subsequent signal transductions lead to the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by innate immune cells. Defects in innate immune response may contribute to the overproduction of TNF-alpha leading to systemic(More)
The development of cardiac hypertrophy is mediated, in part, by increase in NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial oxidative stress. The Rho GTPase, Rac, regulates NADPH oxidase activity through interaction with gp91(phox) and p67(phox) (in which "phox" is phagocyte oxidase). However, it is not known which Rac isoform mediates this effect in the heart. Here(More)
Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes may be a common pathway linking diverse pathogenic mechanisms of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy. Assessment of the oxidative stress production pathway is therefore important for the prediction and prevention of diabetic complications. However, ROS production mechanisms(More)
BACKGROUND Rho GTPase and its downstream target, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), have been implicated in diverse cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy. However, pharmacological inhibitors of ROCK are not entirely specific, nor can they discriminate between the ROCK isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2. To determine the specific role of ROCK1 in the(More)
OBJECTIVE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is diagnosed according to a spectrum of clinical manifestations and autoantibodies associated with abnormal expression of type I interferon (IFN-I)-stimulated genes (ISGs). The role of IFN-I in the pathogenesis of SLE remains uncertain, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. The objective of this study(More)
The aim of this study was to assess if low-dose tacrolimus is efficacious for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) when combined with methotrexate (MTX). The clinical courses of 32 RA patients who received tacrolimus plus MTX were analyzed retrospectively. Disease activity and clinical response were evaluated by DAS28 (disease activity score of 28(More)
RNA interference is triggered by small interfering RNA and microRNA, and is a potent mechanism in post-transcriptional regulation for gene expression. GW182 (also known as TNRC6A), an 182-kDa protein encoded by TNRC6A, is important for this process, although details of its function remain unclear. Here, we report a novel 210-kDa isoform of human GW182,(More)