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The GW182 RNA-binding protein was initially shown to associate with a specific subset of mRNAs and to reside within discrete cytoplasmic foci named GW bodies (GWBs). GWBs are enriched in proteins that are involved in mRNA degradation. Recent reports have shown that exogenously introduced human Argonaute-2 (Ago2) is also enriched in GWBs, indicating that RNA(More)
The human toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway is activated in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and subsequent signal transductions lead to the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by innate immune cells. Defects in innate immune response may contribute to the overproduction of TNF-alpha leading to systemic(More)
INTRODUCTION MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression via degradation or translational repression of their targeted mRNAs. It is known that aberrant microRNA expression can play important roles in cancer, but the role of microRNAs in autoimmune diseases is only beginning to emerge. In this study, the expression of(More)
BACKGROUND Cytoplasmic filamentous rods and rings (RR) structures were identified using human autoantibodies as probes. In the present study, the formation of these conserved structures in mammalian cells and functions linked to these structures were examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Distinct cytoplasmic rods (∼3-10 µm in length) and rings (∼2-5 µm(More)
Tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD, or commonly known as pristane)-induced lupus is a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal disease and autoantibody production strictly depend on signaling through the interferon (IFN)-I receptor. The major source of IFN-I is immature monocytes bearing high levels of the surface marker Ly6C. Interferon(More)
The development of cardiac hypertrophy is mediated, in part, by increase in NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial oxidative stress. The Rho GTPase, Rac, regulates NADPH oxidase activity through interaction with gp91(phox) and p67(phox) (in which "phox" is phagocyte oxidase). However, it is not known which Rac isoform mediates this effect in the heart. Here(More)
OBJECTIVE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is diagnosed according to a spectrum of clinical manifestations and autoantibodies associated with abnormal expression of type I interferon (IFN-I)-stimulated genes (ISGs). The role of IFN-I in the pathogenesis of SLE remains uncertain, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. The objective of this study(More)
Human TLRs are critical sensors for microbial components leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines that are controlled by various mechanisms. Monocytes pretreated with LPS exhibit a state of hyporesponsiveness, referred to as cross-tolerance, to both homologous and heterologous ligands, which play a broader role in innate immunity. To date,(More)
BACKGROUND Rho GTPase and its downstream target, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), have been implicated in diverse cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy. However, pharmacological inhibitors of ROCK are not entirely specific, nor can they discriminate between the ROCK isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2. To determine the specific role of ROCK1 in the(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in innate immune cells are the prime cellular sensors for microbial components. TLR activation leads to the production of proinflammatory mediators and thus TLR signaling must be properly regulated by various mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. TLR4-ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tolerance or cross-tolerance is one such(More)