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The GW182 RNA-binding protein was initially shown to associate with a specific subset of mRNAs and to reside within discrete cytoplasmic foci named GW bodies (GWBs). GWBs are enriched in proteins that are involved in mRNA degradation. Recent reports have shown that exogenously introduced human Argonaute-2 (Ago2) is also enriched in GWBs, indicating that RNA(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in innate immune cells are the prime cellular sensors for microbial components. TLR activation leads to the production of proinflammatory mediators and thus TLR signaling must be properly regulated by various mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. TLR4-ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tolerance or cross-tolerance is one such(More)
INTRODUCTION MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression via degradation or translational repression of their targeted mRNAs. It is known that aberrant microRNA expression can play important roles in cancer, but the role of microRNAs in autoimmune diseases is only beginning to emerge. In this study, the expression of(More)
The human toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway is activated in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and subsequent signal transductions lead to the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by innate immune cells. Defects in innate immune response may contribute to the overproduction of TNF-alpha leading to systemic(More)
Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes may be a common pathway linking diverse pathogenic mechanisms of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy. Assessment of the oxidative stress production pathway is therefore important for the prediction and prevention of diabetic complications. However, ROS production mechanisms(More)
Notch receptors are important mediators of cell fate during embryogenesis, but their role in adult physiology, particularly in postnatal angiogenesis, remains unknown. Of the Notch receptors, only Notch1 and Notch4 are expressed in vascular endothelial cells. Here we show that blood flow recovery and postnatal neovascularization in response to hindlimb(More)
BACKGROUND Rho GTPase and its downstream target, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), have been implicated in diverse cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy. However, pharmacological inhibitors of ROCK are not entirely specific, nor can they discriminate between the ROCK isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2. To determine the specific role of ROCK1 in the(More)
Human TLRs are critical sensors for microbial components leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines that are controlled by various mechanisms. Monocytes pretreated with LPS exhibit a state of hyporesponsiveness, referred to as cross-tolerance, to both homologous and heterologous ligands, which play a broader role in innate immunity. To date,(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence, types, and sociodemographic and biobehavioral correlates of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the US. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 4,754 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. ANAs were assessed by indirect immunofluorescence. In ANA-positive individuals,(More)
Innate immune response is the first defense against pathogens via recognition by various conserved pattern recognition receptors, such as TLRs, to initiate a rapid and strong cytokine alarm. TLR signaling-mediated cytokine production must be properly regulated to prevent pathological conditions deriving from overproduction of cytokines. In this study, the(More)