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Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-induced neuronal protection, several key questions concerning ROS remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study is to obtain direct evidence for the formation of specific ROS species generated by IPC, and to determine the specific species that is responsible(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and NADPH oxidase contribute to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) treatment reduces MMP-9 and oxygen free radical generation in ischemic brain. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NBO protects the BBB through inhibiting NADPH(More)
Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been suggested to play a critical role in the fate of cells exposed to hypoxic stress. However, the mechanism of HIF-1-regulated cell survival is still not fully understood in ischemic conditions. Redox status is critical for decisions of cell survival, death and differentiation. We investigated the effects of(More)
Although hydroxyl radical ((*)OH) formation has been implicated in the pathophysiological changes of ischemic stroke, (*)OH production in the core and penumbra regions is not clear. It is extremely important to distinguish penumbra from ischemic core in focal cerebral ischemia studies, because the penumbra contains viable tissue, which can be salvaged by(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. Secreted in proforms, the MMPs require activation. Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate the activity of MMPs. We investigated the expression of MMP-2 and -9, and the role of the TIMP-3 in MMP-2(More)
UNLABELLED The adequacy of cerebral tissue oxygenation (PtO(2)) is a central therapeutic end point in critically ill and anesthetized patients. Clinically, PtO(2) is currently measured indirectly, based on measurements of cerebrovascular oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy and experimentally, using positron emission tomographic scanning. Recent(More)
Measurement of oxygen concentration and distribution in the brain is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of stroke. Low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with a paramagnetic probe is an attractive imaging modality that potentially can be used to map O(2) concentration in the brain. We examined two nitroxides,(More)
BACKGROUND Dental plaque formed on tooth surfaces is a complex ecosystem composed of diverse oral bacteria and salivary components. Accumulation of dental plaque is a risk factor for dental caries and periodontal diseases. L-arginine has been reported to decrease the risk for dental caries by elevating plaque pH through the activity of arginine deiminase in(More)
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