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Autophagy is a bulk degradation process characterized by the formation of double membrane vesicles called autophagosomes. The exact molecular mechanism of autophagosome formation and the origin of the autophagosomal membrane remain unclear. We screened 38 human Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 domain-containing Rab guanosine triphosphatase-activating proteins (GAPs) and(More)
Autophagy, an intracellular degradative pathway, maintains cell homeostasis under normal and stress conditions. Nascent double-membrane autophagosomes sequester and enclose cytosolic components and organelles, and subsequently fuse with the endosomal pathway allowing content degradation. Autophagy requires fusion of autophagosomes with late endosomes, but(More)
Mammalian cell homeostasis during starvation depends on initiation of autophagy by endoplasmic reticulum-localized phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) synthesis. Formation of double-membrane autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic components requires the LC3-conjugating Atg12-5-16L1 complex. The molecular mechanisms of Atg12-5-16L1 recruitment and(More)
Starvation-induced autophagy requires activation of the ULK complex at the phagophore. Two Golgi proteins, WAC and GM130, regulate autophagy, however their mechanism of regulation is unknown. In search of novel interaction partners of WAC, we found that GM130 directly interacts with WAC, and this interaction is required for autophagy. WAC is bound to the(More)
Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to(More)
Membrane fusion is dependent on the function of SNAREs and their alpha-helical SNARE motifs that form SNARE complexes. The Habc domains at the N-termini of some SNAREs can interact with their associated SNARE motif, Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins, tethering proteins or adaptor proteins, suggesting that they play an important regulatory function. We screened for(More)
Macroautophagy, here called autophagy, is literally a "self-eating" catabolic process, which is evolutionarily conserved. Autophagy is initiated by cellular stress pathways, resulting in the sequestration or engulfment of cytosolic proteins, membranes, and organelles in a double membrane structure that fuses with endosomes and lysosomes, thus delivering the(More)
Autophagy (self-eating) is a highly conserved, vesicular pathway that cells use to eat pieces of themselves, including damaged organelles, protein aggregates or invading pathogens, for self-preservation and survival (Choi et al., N Engl J Med 368:651-662, 2013; Lamb et al., Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 14:759-774, 2013). Autophagy can be delineated into three(More)
Mast cells reorganize their actin cytoskeleton in response to cytosolic calcium signals while in parallel secreting histamine and other inflammatory mediators. The effect of calcium on actin is mediated in large part through calmodulin. EGFP-tagged calmodulin is concentrated in the actin-rich cortex of RBL-2H3 mast cells. Transfection with small interfering(More)