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Why do movements take a characteristic amount of time, and why do diseases that affect the reward system alter control of movements? Suppose that the purpose of any movement is to position our body in a more rewarding state. People and other animals discount future reward as a hyperbolic function of time. Here, we show that across populations of people and(More)
Let us assume that the purpose of any movement is to position our body in a more advantageous or rewarding state. For example, we might make a saccade to foveate an image because our brain assigns an intrinsic value to the information that it expects to acquire at the endpoint of that saccade. Different images might have different intrinsic values. Optimal(More)
The cerebellum may monitor motor commands and through internal feedback correct for anticipated errors. Saccades provide a test of this idea because these movements are completed too quickly for sensory feedback to be useful. Earlier, we reported that motor commands that accelerate the eyes toward a constant amplitude target showed variability. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Visually guided saccades and gaze-fixation ability were recorded in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS Magnetic search coil system was used to measure horizontal and vertical eye positions. RESULTS 'Staircase' visually guided saccades (multiple hypometric saccades separated by an intersaccadic interval) and 'staircase'(More)
When we applied a single pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to any part of the human head during a saccadic eye movement, the ongoing eye velocity was reduced as early as 45 ms after the TMS, and lasted ∼32 ms. The perturbation to the saccade trajectory was not due to a mechanical effect of the lid on the eye (e.g., from blinks). When the(More)
Many real-world datasets suffer from missing or incomplete data. In the healthcare setting, for example, certain patient measurement parameters, such as vitals and/or lab values, may be missing due to insufficient monitoring. When present, however, these features could be highly discriminative in predicting aspects of patient state. Therefore, it is(More)
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