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BACKGROUND & AIMS Germline mutations in mismatch repair genes are associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. A significant proportion of mutations are nontruncating and associated with a variability of clinical phenotype and microsatellite instability and with occasional presence of residual protein in tumor tissue that suggests impaired(More)
The human genome contains frequent single-basepair variants that may or may not cause genetic disease. To characterize benign vs. pathogenic missense variants, numerous computational algorithms have been developed based on comparative sequence and/or protein structure analysis. We compared computational methods that use evolutionary conservation alone,(More)
The human mismatch repair (MMR) gene MSH2 is the second most frequently mutated hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) susceptibility locus. Given that missense mutations account for 17% of all identified alterations in this gene, the study of their pathogenicity is of increasing importance. Previously, we showed that pathogenic MSH2 missense(More)
The MLH3 gene is one of the five mismatch repair (MMR) genes associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Eighteen different inherited MLH3 mutations have been reported as pathogenic in an international mutation database. In several cases, a mutation was found in a patient without a family history suggestive of inherited cancer(More)
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) mechanism contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability. Loss of MMR function predisposes to a mutator cell phenotype, microsatellite instability (MSI) and cancer, especially hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). To date, five MMR genes, hMSH2, hMSH6, hMLH1, hPMS2, and hMLH3 are associated with HNPCC. Although,(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Inherited deleterious mutations in mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 predispose to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. A major diagnostic challenge is the difficulty in evaluating the pathogenicity of missense mutations. Previously we showed that most missense variants in MSH6 do not impair MMR capability and are associated(More)
OBJECTIVE The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1) genes are the two major components of the Wnt signaling pathway that has been shown to play an important role in the formation of certain cancers. The overactivation of the pathway, which results in abnormal accumulation of beta-catenin protein in nuclei, contributes to most colorectal(More)
Recently, we have performed a population based study to analyse the frequency of colorectal cancer related MLH1 and MSH2 missense mutations in the Danish population. Half of the analyzed mutations were rare and most likely only present in the families where they were identified originally. Some of the missense mutations were located in conserved regions in(More)
Lynch syndrome is an inherited cancer syndrome caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. LS predisposes to high risk of early-onset colorectal, endometrial and other tumors. Patients with Lynch syndrome have also been shown to have an elevated risk for pancreatic cancer (PC). In this study, we aimed to estimate(More)
In order to assess whether variations affecting DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are pathogenic and hence predisposing to Lynch syndrome (LS), a three-step assessment model has been proposed. Where LS is suspected based on family history, STEP1 is dedicated to the identification of the causative MMR gene and the variation within it. Thereafter, in STEP2 of(More)