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High nutrient availability and defoliation generally reduce ectomycorrhizal colonization levels in trees, but it is not known how this affects the functional aspects of mycorrhizal symbiosis. It was therefore investigated whether (1) defoliation or increasing substrate N availability reduce C allocation from the plant to the fungus and N allocation from the(More)
There is rising awareness that different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have different autoecology and occupy different soil niches and that the benefits they provide to the host plant are dependent on plant-AM fungus combination. However, the role and community composition of AM fungi in succession are not well known and the northern latitudes remain(More)
Several factors have been proposed to explain female maintenance in gynodioecious populations. In this study, we propose and test a novel hypothesis: greater tolerance to herbivory through more beneficial interactions with plant fungal mutualists might also help to explain female maintenance. Herbivory limits the amount of carbon and nutrients available for(More)
Little is known about endophytic microbes in cold climate plants and how their communities are formed.We compared culturable putative endophytic bacteria and fungi in the ecologically important circumpolargrass, Deschampsia flexuosa growing in two successional stages of subarctic sand dune (68°29′N).Sequence analyses of partial 16S rRNA and internal(More)
 We report the effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Suillus variegatus, Paxillus involutus) and defoliation on polyamine concentrations in pine (Pinus silvestris) and birch (Betula pendula) foliage and roots. Symbiotic root tips showed consistently higher concentrations of putrescine than non-symbiotic roots. Partial defoliation had no effect on the polyamine(More)
In most studies about dioecious plants, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) and the potential sex-specific differences between the plant hosts have been overlooked. Because plant sexes frequently differ in drought tolerance and AM fungal colonization provides higher resistance to drought, we investigated whether the relation of mycorrhizal fungi with(More)
In gynodioecious plants, females are predicted to produce more and/or better offspring than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained in the same population. In the field, the roots of both sexes are usually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Transgenerational effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis are largely unknown, although theoretically expected.(More)
Both plant sex and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis influence resource acquisition and allocation in plants, but the interaction between these two components is not well established. As the different plant sexes differ in their resource needs and allocation patterns, it is logical to presume that they might differ in their relationship with AM as well.(More)
Little is known about the ecology and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in Arctic ecosystems. Here, the diversity and composition of the AM fungal community and its response to host plant community composition were studied in a low-Arctic meadow habitat. The natural vegetation in two low-Arctic meadow sites was manipulated. Plots with natural(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Differences in competitive ability between the sexes of dioecious plants are expected as a result of allocation trade-offs associated with sex-differential reproductive costs. However, the available data on competitive ability in dioecious plants are scarce and contradictory. In this study sexual competition was evaluated using the(More)