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The surface of indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates was successfully modified with aziridine. Modification of the surface was achieved through facile ring-opening, and hyperbranching polymerization of the ring-strained heterocycle initiated from the reactive group on the surface. Amine density of the aziridine-modified ITO measured with UV-vis(More)
The energy level alignments at donor/acceptor interfaces in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) play a decisive role in device performance. However, little is known about the interfacial energetics in polymer OPVs due to technical issues of the solution process. Here, the frontier ortbial line-ups at the donor/acceptor interface in high performance polymer OPVs,(More)
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