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It is well established that axons of the adult mammalian CNS are capable of regrowing only a limited amount after injury. Astrocytes are believed to play a crucial role in the failure to regenerate, producing multiple inhibitory proteoglycans, such as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). After spinal cord injury (SCI), astrocytes become hypertrophic(More)
Astrogliosis occurs after brain ischemia, and excessive astrogliosis can devastate the neuronal recovery. Previous reports show that galectin-1 (Gal-1) regulates proliferation of several cell types and plays an important role after nervous system injuries. Here, we found that expression of Gal-1 was remarkably up-regulated in activated astrocytes around(More)
The spinal cord is well known to undergo inflammatory reactions in response to traumatic injury. Activation and proliferation of microglial cells, with associated proinflammatory cytokines expression, plays an important role in the secondary damage following spinal cord injury. It is likely that microglial cells are at the center of injury cascade and are(More)
As a physical barrier to regenerating axons, reactive astrogliosis is also a biochemical barrier which can secrete inhibitory molecules, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the pathological mechanism of spinal cord injury (SCI). Thus, inhibition of astroglial proliferation and CSPG production might facilitate axonal regeneration after(More)
Tamoxifen has been found to be neuroprotective in both transient and permanent experimental ischemic stroke. However, it remains unknown whether this agent shows a similar beneficial effect after spinal cord injury (SCI), and what are its underlying mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment in attenuating SCI-induced(More)
OBJECTIVE Most patients with stroke caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) show cognitive deficit that is generally regarded as resulting from damage to the cerebral cortex rather than the hippocampus. Whether MCAO induces hippocampal damage and whether this contributes to the cognitive defects remains unclear. Here we investigate the hippocampal(More)
We have recently reported that most of NG2 glycoprotein expressing glial cells, or NG2 glia, in rat hippocampus persistently express sodium channel currents (I(Na)) during development, but little is known about its function. We report here that hippocampal NG2 glia recorded in either acute slices or freshly isolated preparations from postnatal days (P) 7-21(More)
— This paper describes the low-complexity 14kHz bandwidth audio coding algorithm which has been recently standardized by ITU-T as Recommendation G.722.1 Annex C (" G.722.1C "). The algorithm is an extension to ITU-T Recommendation G.722.1 and a doubled form of the G.722.1 algorithm to permit 14 kHz audio bandwidth using a 32 kHz audio sample rate, at 24,(More)