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The dopamine transporter, DAT, is a primary regulator of dopamine (DA) signaling at the synapse. Persistent stimulation with the substrate amphetamine (AMPH) promotes DAT internalization. AMPH rapidly elicits DA efflux, yet its effect on DAT trafficking at short times is unknown. We examined the rapid effect of AMPH on DAT trafficking in rat striatal(More)
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a key mediator of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a major target for amphetamine. We found previously that protein kinase C (PKC) beta regulates amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux. Here, using PKCbeta wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice, we report a novel role for PKCbeta in amphetamine-induced regulation of DAT(More)
Memcached is a key-value distributed memory object caching system. It is used widely in the data-center environment for caching results of database calls, API calls or any other data. Using Memcached, spare memory in data-center servers can be aggregated to speed up lookups of frequently accessed information. The performance of Memcached is directly related(More)
Parallel programming is essential for reaping the benefits of parallel hardware, but it is notoriously difficult to develop and debug reliable, scalable software systems. One key challenge is that modern languages and systems provide poor support for ensuring concurrency correctness properties - atomicity, sequential consistency, and multithreaded(More)
Although it is clear that amphetamine-induced dopamine (DA) release mediated by the dopamine transporter (DAT) is integral to the behavioral actions of this psychostimulant, the mechanism of this release is not clear. In this study, we explored the requirement for intracellular Ca(2+) in amphetamine-induced DA efflux and currents mediated by the human DAT.(More)
Rapid treatment (1 min) of rat striatal synaptosomes with low-dose amphetamine increases surface expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Using mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells, stably transfected with green fluorescent protein-DAT, we demonstrate the real-time substrate-induced rapid trafficking of DAT to the plasma membrane using total internal(More)
The soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein syntaxin 1A (SYN1A) interacts with and regulates the function of transmembrane proteins, including ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters. Here, we define the first 33 amino acids of the N terminus of the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) as the site of direct(More)
Inbred strains of mice have served as valuable models for studying genetic susceptibility to drug addiction, an alternative to genetically modified mouse models. This is the first study comparing amphetamine (AMPH) effects on locomotor stimulation and dopamine efflux between two inbred strains of mice C57BL/6J and 129S2/SvHsd, frequently used as background(More)
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) regulates synaptic dopamine (DA) levels and is the site of action of abused and therapeutic drugs. Here we study the effect of a threonine residue (Thr62 in hDAT) that is highly conserved within a canonical phosphorylation site (RETW) in the juxtamembrane N-terminal region of monoamine transporters. In stably(More)
Data races are common. They are difficult to detect, avoid, or eliminate, and programmers sometimes introduce them intentionally. However, shared-memory programs with data races have unexpected, erroneous behaviors. Intentional and unintentional data races lead to atomicity and sequential consistency (SC) violations, and they make it more difficult to(More)