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The dopamine transporter, DAT, is a primary regulator of dopamine (DA) signaling at the synapse. Persistent stimulation with the substrate amphetamine (AMPH) promotes DAT internalization. AMPH rapidly elicits DA efflux, yet its effect on DAT trafficking at short times is unknown. We examined the rapid effect of AMPH on DAT trafficking in rat striatal(More)
Memcached is a key-value distributed memory object caching system. It is used widely in the data-center environment for caching results of database calls, API calls or any other data. Using Memcached, spare memory in data-center servers can be aggregated to speed up lookups of frequently accessed information. The performance of Memcached is directly related(More)
Parallel programming is essential for reaping the benefits of parallel hardware, but it is notoriously difficult to develop and debug reliable, scalable software systems. One key challenge is that modern languages and systems provide poor support for ensuring concurrency correctness properties - atomicity, sequential consistency, and multithreaded(More)
It is notoriously challenging to achieve parallel software systems that are both scalable and reliable. Parallel runtime support—such as multithreaded record & replay, data race and atomicity violation detectors, transactional memory, and support for stronger memory models—helps achieve these goals, but existing commodity solutions slow programs(More)
Although it is clear that amphetamine-induced dopamine (DA) release mediated by the dopamine transporter (DAT) is integral to the behavioral actions of this psychostimulant, the mechanism of this release is not clear. In this study, we explored the requirement for intracellular Ca(2+) in amphetamine-induced DA efflux and currents mediated by the human DAT.(More)
Repeated intermittent treatment with amphetamine (AMPH) induces both neurite outgrowth and enhanced AMPH-stimulated dopamine (DA) release in PC12 cells. We investigated the role of protein kinases in the induction of these AMPH-mediated events by using inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) or protein kinase A(More)
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a key mediator of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a major target for amphetamine. We found previously that protein kinase C (PKC) beta regulates amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux. Here, using PKCbeta wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice, we report a novel role for PKCbeta in amphetamine-induced regulation of DAT(More)
Rapid treatment (1 min) of rat striatal synaptosomes with low-dose amphetamine increases surface expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Using mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells, stably transfected with green fluorescent protein-DAT, we demonstrate the real-time substrate-induced rapid trafficking of DAT to the plasma membrane using total internal(More)
The soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein syntaxin 1A (SYN1A) interacts with and regulates the function of transmembrane proteins, including ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters. Here, we define the first 33 amino acids of the N terminus of the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) as the site of direct(More)
Nicotine has been demonstrated to enhance the subsequent use of illicit drugs in animals and humans. We previously demonstrated in female, Holtzman rats that one low dose of nicotine will potentiate locomotor activity and dopamine (DA) efflux in response to a subsequent low dose of d-amphetamine (AMPH) given 1-4 h later. In the present study, we show this(More)