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Extracellular nucleotides such as ATP are present in abundance at sites of inflammation and tissue damage, and these agents exert a potent modulatory effect on macrophage/monocyte function via the nucleotide receptor P2X(7). In this regard, after exposure to bacterial LPS, P2X(7) activation augments expression of the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and(More)
Macrophages express several lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding proteins and are potently activated by LPS to produce inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have shown that receptors for exogenous nucleotides (P2X and P2Y purinergic receptors) can modulate macrophage production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and nitric oxide (NO) following LPS exposure. Macrophages(More)
Previous reports about the nucleotide receptor P2X(7), which exhibits ion channel and pore-forming activity and is known to promote IL-1beta processing, have centered largely on its role in macrophage function, whereas its participation in monocyte activity has been unclear. However, because extracellular ATP has been shown to affect monocytes with respect(More)
Extracellular nucleotides regulate macrophage function via P2X nucleotide receptors that form ligand-gated ion channels. In particular, P2X7 activation is characterized by pore formation, membrane blebbing, and cytokine release. P2X7 is also linked to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Rho-dependent pathways, which are known to affect cytoskeletal(More)
Macrophage activation is critical in the innate immune response and can be regulated by the nucleotide receptor P2X7. In this regard, P2X7 signaling is not well understood but has been implicated in controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by various leukocytes. Although ROS can contribute to microbial killing, the role of ROS in(More)
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