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Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a costimulatory molecule with diverse effects on effector T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), but the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that GITR ligation subverts the induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs and directs the activated CD4(+) T cells to Th9 cells. Such GITR-mediated(More)
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against many common microorganisms, which can initiate adaptive immune responses to provide increased protection against subsequent re-infection by the same pathogen. As a major family of antimicrobial peptides, defensins are widely expressed in a variety of epithelial cells and sometimes in leukocytes,(More)
Corneal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in corneal perforation in susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) mice, but not in resistant BALB/c mice. To explore the role of two important defensins, murine beta-defensin-1 (mBD1) and mBD2, in the ocular immune defense system, their mRNA and protein expression levels were tested by real-time RT-PCR and Western(More)
Macrophages play a crucial role in host innate anti-mycobacterial defense, which is tightly regulated by multiple factors, including microRNAs. Our previous study showed that a panel of microRNAs was markedly up-regulated in macrophages upon mycobacterial infection. Here, we investigated the biological function of miR-146a during mycobacterial infection.(More)
Defensins play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunity due to their antimicrobial, regulatory, and chemotactic effects. Nonetheless, the role of murine beta-defensins (mBD) 3 and 4, the murine homologs of human beta-defensins (hBD) 2 and 3, remains unknown in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. This study explored their role in corneal(More)
During chronic inflammation, prolonged over-reactive immune response may lead to tissue destruction, while immune suppression hinders tissue repair and pathogen elimination. Therefore, precise regulation of the immune response is needed to avoid immuno-pathology. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is widely used in clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases.(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immunity against invading pathogens. Although TLR signaling has been indicated to protect cells from infection of several viruses, the role of TLRs in Dengue virus (DENV) replication is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the replication of DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) by challenging(More)
PURPOSE To determine the role of IL-33 in resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. METHODS Corneal IL-33 mRNA and protein levels were tested in susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) and resistant BALB/c mice. B6 mice were injected with recombinant mouse IL-33 (rmIL-33) and disease severity, bacterial load, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) infiltrate, gene(More)
PURPOSE To explore the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis. METHODS BALB/c mice were routinely infected with PA and evaluated at various postinfection time points for corneal expression of TREM-2, by real-time PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. Next, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the role of β-catenin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis. METHODS Western-blot and immunostaining assay were used to determine the β-catenin protein expression in C57BL/6 (B6) corneas and in in vitro cultured murine cells including macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells, bone marrow-derived neutrophils and A6(1) corneal epithelial(More)