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Macrophages play a crucial role in host innate anti-mycobacterial defense, which is tightly regulated by multiple factors, including microRNAs. Our previous study showed that a panel of microRNAs was markedly up-regulated in macrophages upon mycobacterial infection. Here, we investigated the biological function of miR-146a during mycobacterial infection.(More)
PURPOSE To determine the role of IL-33 in resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. METHODS Corneal IL-33 mRNA and protein levels were tested in susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) and resistant BALB/c mice. B6 mice were injected with recombinant mouse IL-33 (rmIL-33) and disease severity, bacterial load, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) infiltrate, gene(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immunity against invading pathogens. Although TLR signaling has been indicated to protect cells from infection of several viruses, the role of TLRs in Dengue virus (DENV) replication is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the replication of DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) by challenging(More)
PURPOSE To explore the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis. METHODS BALB/c mice were routinely infected with PA and evaluated at various postinfection time points for corneal expression of TREM-2, by real-time PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. Next, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were(More)
Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a costimulatory molecule with diverse effects on effector T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), but the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that GITR ligation subverts the induction of Foxp3(+) Tregs and directs the activated CD4(+) T cells to Th9 cells. Such GITR-mediated(More)
PURPOSE The role of the Fas pathway was tested in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected mouse cornea by contrasting the responses of FasL(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. METHODS TUNEL staining, real-time RT-PCR, immunostaining, and ELISA assay were used. RESULTS Compared with WT (resistant) mice, BALB/c FasL(-/-) exhibited significantly elevated bacterial(More)
PURPOSE To explore the role of lithium chloride (LiCl) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis. METHODS B6 mice were subconjunctivally injected with LiCl in contrast to appropriate control sodium chloride (NaCl), and then routinely infected with PA. Clinical score, slit-lamp photography, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and bacterial plate counts(More)
PURPOSE To explore the possibility that inhibiting triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) and Dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1(Dectin-1) could modulate the innate immune response and alleviate the severity of corneal fungal keratitis. METHOD TREM-1 and Dectin-1 expression was detected in fungus-infected human corneal specimens(More)
PURPOSE We explored the role of myeloid-related protein 8 and 14 (MRP8/14) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis. METHODS MRP8/14 mRNA levels in human corneal scrapes and mouse corneas infected by PA were tested using real-time PCR. MRP8/14 protein expression in C57BL/6 (B6) corneas was confirmed using Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry. B6(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in clinical settings to treat tissue injuries and autoimmune disorders due to their multipotentiality and immunomodulation. Long-term observations reveal several complications after MSCs infusion, especially herpesviral infection. However, the mechanism of host defense against herpesviruses in MSCs remains(More)