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A progressive loss of neurons with age underlies a variety of debilitating neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), yet few effective treatments are currently available. The SIR2 gene promotes longevity in a variety of organisms and may underlie the health benefits of caloric restriction, a diet(More)
The most common inherited [correct] form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease affecting adult motor neurons, is caused by dominant mutations in the ubiquitously expressed Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). In chimeric mice that are mixtures of normal and SOD1 mutant-expressing cells, toxicity to motor neurons is shown to(More)
Innate immunity was previously thought to be a nonspecific immunological programme that was engaged by peripheral organs to maintain homeostasis after stress and injury. Emerging evidence indicates that this highly organized response also takes place in the central nervous system. Through the recognition of neuronal fingerprints, the long-term induction of(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated the activation of caspase-1 and caspase-3 in mice expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Caspase-1 converts the prointerleukin-1beta into a potent proinflammatory molecule involved in the innate immune response and in neurodegenerative diseases. We report on the chronic(More)
Peripherin, a type III intermediate filament (IF) protein, upregulated by injury and inflammatory cytokines, is a component of IF inclusion bodies associated with degenerating motor neurons in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report here that sustained overexpression of wild-type peripherin in mice provokes massive and selective degeneration(More)
There is currently no effective pharmacological treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Because recent evidence suggests that secondary inflammation and caspase activation may contribute to neurodegeneration in ALS, we tested the effects of minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline with anti-inflammatory properties, in mice expressing a(More)
Recent studies suggest that increased activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) may contribute to neuronal death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. We report here such deregulation of Cdk5 activity associated with the hyperphosphorylation of tau and neurofilament (NF) proteins in mice expressing a mutant superoxide dismutase(More)
Innate immunity is a specific and organized immunological program engaged by peripheral organs and the CNS to maintain homeostasis after stress and injury. In neurodegenerative disorders, its putative deregulation, featured by inflammation and activation of glial cells resulting from inherited mutations or viral/bacterial infections, likely contributes to(More)
Peripherin, a neuronal intermediate filament (nIF) protein found associated with pathological aggregates in motor neurons of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and of transgenic mice overexpressing mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1G37R), induces the selective degeneration of motor neurons when overexpressed in transgenic mice. Mouse(More)
Peripherin is a type III intermediate filament (IF) abundantly expressed in developing neurons, but in the adult, it is primarily found in neurons extending to the peripheral nervous system. It has been suggested that peripherin may play a role in axonal elongation and/or cytoskeletal stabilization during development and regeneration. To further clarify the(More)