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Vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are highly efficient vehicles for in vivo gene delivery. However, their biosafety is of major concern. Here we exploit the complexity of the HIV genome to provide lentivirus vectors with novel biosafety features. In addition to the structural genes, HIV contains two regulatory genes, tat and rev, that(More)
BACKGROUND The generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies is a priority in the design of vaccines against HIV-1. Unfortunately, most antibodies to HIV-1 are narrow in their specificity, and a basic understanding of how to develop antibodies with broad neutralizing activity is needed. Designing methods to target antibodies to conserved HIV-1 epitopes may(More)
Superinfection by a second human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain indicates that gaps in protective immunity occur during natural infection. To define the role of HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in this setting, we examined NAb responses in 6 women who became superinfected between approximately 1 to 5 years following initial(More)
Unconventional immune responses have been demonstrated in individuals who, despite repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, remain seronegative. As environmental exposure to pathogens and genetic background may modulate immune responses differentially, one Italian and two Asian populations of HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants that are transmitted to newly infected individuals are the primary targets of interventions, such as vaccines and microbicides, aimed at preventing new infections. Newly acquired subtype A, B, and C variants have been the focus of neutralization studies, although many of these viruses, particularly of(More)
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