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Two novel conotoxins from vermivorous cone snails Conus pulicarius and Conus tessulatus, designated as Pu14.1 and ts14a, were identified by cDNA cloning and peptide purification, respectively. The signal sequence of Pu14.1 is identical to that of α-conotoxins, while its predicted mature peptide, pu14a, shares high sequence similarity with ts14a, with only(More)
Voltage-gated K(+) (KV) channels play critical roles in shaping neuronal signals. KV channels distributed in the perisomatic regions and thick dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons have been extensively studied. However, the properties and regulation of KV channels distributed in the thin axons remain unknown. In this study, by performing somatic and(More)
Nav1.8 is a tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel selectively expressed in primary sensory neurons. Peripheral inflammation and nerve injury induce Nav1.8 accumulation in peripheral nerves. However, the mechanisms and related significance of channel accumulation in nerves remains unclear. Here we report that KIF5B promotes the forward(More)
Thirst is the basic instinct to drink water. Previously, it was shown that neurons in several circumventricular organs of the hypothalamus are activated by thirst-inducing conditions. Here we identify two distinct, genetically separable neural populations in the subfornical organ that trigger or suppress thirst. We show that optogenetic activation of(More)
A novel protease inhibitor, designated mungoin, with both antifungal and antibacterial activities, and exhibiting a molecular mass of 10kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was isolated from mung bean (Phaseolus mungo) seeds. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography(More)
A novel conotoxin, qc16a, was identified from the venom of vermivorous Conus quercinus. qc16a has only 11 amino acid residues, DCQPCGHNVCC, with a unique cysteine pattern. Its disulfide connectivity was determined to be I-IV, II-III. The NMR structure shows that qc16a adopts a ribbon conformation with a simple beta-turn motif formed by residues Gly6, His7(More)
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