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Thirst is the basic instinct to drink water. Previously, it was shown that neurons in several circumventricular organs of the hypothalamus are activated by thirst-inducing conditions. Here we identify two distinct, genetically separable neural populations in the subfornical organ that trigger or suppress thirst. We show that optogenetic activation of(More)
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells potentially provide a unique resource for generating patient-specific cardiomyocytes to study cardiac disease mechanisms and treatments. However, existing approaches to cardiomyocyte production from human iPS cells are inefficient, limiting the application of iPS cells in basic and translational cardiac research.(More)
Two novel conotoxins from vermivorous cone snails Conus pulicarius and Conus tessulatus, designated as Pu14.1 and ts14a, were identified by cDNA cloning and peptide purification, respectively. The signal sequence of Pu14.1 is identical to that of α-conotoxins, while its predicted mature peptide, pu14a, shares high sequence similarity with ts14a, with only(More)
The purpose of this study is to establish a murine embryonic stem cell (mESC) line for isolation of functional ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCMs) and then to characterize the derived VCMs. By crossing the myosin light chain 2v (Mlc2v)-Cre mouse line with the reporter strain Rosa26-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), we generated mESC lines from these double(More)
Cone snail venoms are a rich source of peptides, many of which are potent and selective modulators of ion channels and receptors. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two novel conotoxins from the venom of Conus imperialis. These two toxins contain a novel cysteine framework, C-C-C-CC-C, which has not been found in other conotoxins described(More)
Nav1.8 is a tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel selectively expressed in primary sensory neurons. Peripheral inflammation and nerve injury induce Nav1.8 accumulation in peripheral nerves. However, the mechanisms and related significance of channel accumulation in nerves remains unclear. Here we report that KIF5B promotes the forward(More)
A novel protease inhibitor, designated mungoin, with both antifungal and antibacterial activities, and exhibiting a molecular mass of 10kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was isolated from mung bean (Phaseolus mungo) seeds. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography(More)
A novel conotoxin, qc16a, was identified from the venom of vermivorous Conus quercinus. qc16a has only 11 amino acid residues, DCQPCGHNVCC, with a unique cysteine pattern. Its disulfide connectivity was determined to be I-IV, II-III. The NMR structure shows that qc16a adopts a ribbon conformation with a simple beta-turn motif formed by residues Gly6, His7(More)
Voltage-gated K(+) (KV) channels play critical roles in shaping neuronal signals. KV channels distributed in the perisomatic regions and thick dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons have been extensively studied. However, the properties and regulation of KV channels distributed in the thin axons remain unknown. In this study, by performing somatic and(More)
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