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An important aspect of synapse development is the clustering of neurotransmitter receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Although MuSK is required for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We report here that in muscle cells, MuSK interacts with Dishevelled (Dvl), a(More)
* move toward higher concentrations of chemoattractants. Summary Cdc42 has been shown to interact with and/or activate proteins known to be involved in cytoskeleton reorgani-Efficient chemotaxis requires directional sensing and zation, including the PAK kinases and Wiscott Aldrich cell polarization. We describe a signaling mechanism syndrome protein (WASP)(More)
Cell motility is defined as cell movement in the three-dimensional space leading to repositioning of the cell. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC, including ζ and λ/ι) are a subfamily of PKC. Different from classic PKC and novel PKC, the activation of atypical PKC is not dependent on diacylglycerol or calcium. PKCζ can be activated by lipid components, such as(More)
Here we report that miR-93, a miRNA in the miR-106B~25 cluster, a paralog of the miR-17-92 cluster, was significantly upregulated in human breast carcinoma tissues. We stably expressed miR-93 in the MT-1 human breast carcinoma cell line and found that tumors formed by the miR-93 cells contained more blood vessels than those formed by the control cells.(More)
Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a newly discovered acute phase protein produced at the sites of infection and inflammation by tissue cells, macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells. PTX3 plays an important role in preventing infection of certain fungi, bacteria, and viruses in the lung. Recombinant PTX3 has been proposed as a potential antifungal molecule for(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important neurotransmitter that, through the subtype A GABA receptor (GABAAR), induces inhibition in the adult brain. Here we show that an excitatory, rather than inhibitory, GABAergic system exists in airway epithelial cells. Both GABAARs and the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are expressed in(More)
INTRODUCTION The function of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system in acute lung injury (ALI) is controversial. We hypothesized that the role of VEGF in ALI may depend upon the stages of pathogenesis of ALI. METHODS To determine the responses of VEGF and its receptors during the early onset of ALI, C57BL6 mice were subjected to intestinal(More)
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are a powerful new approach for targeted gene disruption in various animal models, but little is known about their activities in Mus musculus, the widely used mammalian model organism. Here, we report that direct injection of in vitro transcribed messenger RNA of TALEN pairs into mouse zygotes induced(More)
Tumor growth depends on angiogenesis and inducing angiogenesis is one of the most important hallmarks in the cancer development. Treatment with small molecules that inhibit angiogenesis has been an effective strategy for anti-cancer therapy. Some anti-angiogenic factors are derived from traditional Chinese herbs. Usnic acid (UA), an active compound mainly(More)
Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) has been used to treat certain tumors in clinic trials. However, the curative effect of TNFa has been undermined by the induced-NF-B activation in many types of tumor. Maslinic acid (MA), a pharmacological safe natural product, has been known for its important effects as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and(More)