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Here we report an orientation-dependent statistical all-atom potential derived from side-chain packing, named OPUS-PSP. It features a basis set of 19 rigid-body blocks extracted from the chemical structures of all 20 amino acid residues. The potential is generated from the orientation-specific packing statistics of pairs of those blocks in a non-redundant(More)
In this paper, we report a knowledge-based potential function, named the OPUS-Ca potential, that requires only Calpha positions as input. The contributions from other atomic positions were established from pseudo-positions artificially built from a Calpha trace for auxiliary purposes. The potential function is formed based on seven major representative(More)
Transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes - the epithelial to -mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) - are hallmarks of cancer metastasis. While transitioning between the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, cells can also attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) (i.e., partial or(More)
Forward and backward transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes play crucial roles in embryonic development and tissue repair. Aberrantly regulated transitions are also a hallmark of cancer metastasis. The genetic network that regulates these transitions appears to allow for the existence of a hybrid phenotype (epithelial/mesenchymal). Hybrid(More)
The magnetic order and critical behavior at well-defined surfaces of ultrathin ( 1.9-2.1) monolayer Fe{ lOO)p( 1 X 1) films, deposited at room temperature on atomically flat Pd( 100) substrate crystals, is investigated using electron-capture spectroscopy { ECS). Ferromagnetic order sets in at a surface Curie temperature Tc,=613.1 K. At room temperature, the(More)
The effects of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) (CD3+CD56+) cells together with chemotherapy were investigated in patients who suffered from advanced gastric cancers (stage IV). Fifty-seven patients were divided into two groups: chemotherapy plus CIK biotherapy and chemotherapy alone. CIK cells were induced from autologous peripheral blood(More)
Here we report the crystal structure of hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza B/Hong Kong/8/73 (B/HK) virus determined to 2.8 A. At a sequence identity of approximately 25% to influenza A virus HAs, B/HK HA shares a similar overall structure and domain organization. More than two dozen amino acid substitutions on influenza B virus HAs have been identified to(More)
Multistate genetic switches play a crucial role during embryonic development and tumorigenesis. An archetypical example is the three-way switch regulating epithelial-hybrid-mesenchymal transitions. We devise a special WKB-based approach to investigate white Gaussian and shot noise effects on three-way switches, and construct an effective landscape in good(More)
We report a novel computational procedure for determining protein native topology, or fold, by defining loop connectivity based on skeletons of secondary structures that can usually be obtained from low to intermediate-resolution density maps. The procedure primarily involves a knowledge-based geometry filter followed by an energetics-based evaluation. It(More)
Metastatic carcinoma cells exhibit at least two different phenotypes of motility and invasion - amoeboid and mesenchymal. This plasticity poses a major clinical challenge for treating metastasis, while its underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. Transitions between these phenotypes are mediated by the Rac1/RhoA circuit that responds to external signals such(More)