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Angiotensin IV (AngIV; Val(1)-Tyr(2)-Ile(3)-His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6))-related peptides have emerged as potential antidementia agents. However, their development as practical therapeutic agents has been impeded by a combination of metabolic instability, poor blood-brain barrier permeability, and an incomplete understanding of their mechanism of action. This(More)
Angiotensin IV (AngIV: VYIHPF)-related peptides have long been recognized as procognitive agents with potential as antidementia therapeutics. Their development as useful therapeutics, however, has been limited by physiochemical properties that make them susceptible to metabolic degradation and impermeable to gut and blood-brain barriers. A previous study(More)
Leptin is a critical neurotrophic factor for the development of neuronal pathways and synaptogenesis in the hypothalamus. Leptin receptors are also found in other brain regions, including the hippocampus, and a postnatal surge in leptin correlates with a time of rapid growth of dendritic spines and synapses in the hippocampus. Leptin is critical for normal(More)
Leptin acts in the hippocampus to enhance cognition and reduce depression and anxiety. Cognitive and emotional disorders are associated with abnormal hippocampal dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis. Although leptin has been shown to induce synaptogenesis in the hypothalamus, its effects on hippocampal synaptogenesis and the mechanism(s) involved(More)
Neurotrophin-regulated gene expression is believed to play a key role in long-term changes in synaptic structure and the formation of dendritic spines. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to induce increases in dendritic spine formation, and this process is thought to function in part by stimulating CREB-dependent transcriptional(More)
Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants linked to neuropsychological dysfunction in children. NDL PCBs increase spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in neurons by stabilizing ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels in the open configuration, which results in CREB-dependent dendritic outgrowth. In(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical neurotransmitter in the control of autonomic functions. 5-HT(3) receptors participate in vagal afferent feedback to decrease food intake and regulate cardiovascular reflexes; however, the phenotype of the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) neurons involved is not known. A(2)/C(2) catecholamine (CA) neurons in the NTS are directly(More)
A subset of angiotensin IV (AngIV)-related molecules are known to possess procognitive/antidementia properties and have been considered as templates for potential therapeutics. However, this potential has not been realized because of two factors: 1) a lack of blood-brain barrier-penetrant analogs, and 2) the absence of a validated mechanism of action. The(More)
It is becoming increasingly clear that leptin is not only a hormone regulating energy homeostasis but also a neurotrophic factor impacting a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus. Although leptin promotes the development of GABAergic transmission in the hypothalamus, little is known about its action on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus.(More)
Oxytocin (OT)-elicited hypophagia has been linked to neural activity in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Because plasma OT levels increase after a meal, we hypothesized that circulating OT acts at both peripheral and hindbrain OT receptors (OTRs) to limit food intake. To initially determine whether circulating OT inhibits food intake by acting at(More)