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The biochemical processes underlying opiate addiction are complex, but n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction appears to be one contributing factor. NMDAR antagonists, including MK-801 and memantine, have previously been shown to assuage symptoms stemming from opiate withdrawal. The conantokins are a small family of naturally occurring peptide(More)
NR2B-selective inhibitors show lower side-effects in preclinical pain models than non-selective NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, but it is unclear whether the improved safety of NR2B-selective inhibitors is due to their subtype selectivity or to a unique mode of inhibition of the receptor. In this study, the analgesic effects of intracerebral bolus(More)
In the present study, we isolated, synthesized and NMR structurally characterized a novel conopeptide Im10A consisting of 11 amino acids (NTICCEGCMCY-NH2) from Conus imperialis. Unlike other conopeptides with four cysteine residues, Im10A had only two residues in loop 1 and one residue in loop 2 (CC-loop1-C-loop2-C), which formed a stable disulfide(More)
A novel hirudin isoform 3 mimetic peptide, named peptide S2, has been prepared by introduction of a stearic acid modification. Peptide S2 exhibited superior inhibitory activity to hirulog-1 (Bivariludin) and showed significantly higher anticoagulant potency in vivo. Peptide S2 elevated the thrombin time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin(More)
We have previously found a new mode of metal ion-induced helix-helix assembly for the gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-containing, neuroactive conantokin (con) peptides that is independent of the hydrophobic effect. In these unique "metallo-zipper" assemblies of con-G and con-T[K7gamma], interhelical Ca(2+) coordination induces dimer formation with strictly(More)
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