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After first being analyzed by HPLC, 4 free carotenoids, 15 astaxanthin monoesters, 12 astaxanthin diesters, and 3 astacin monoesters in Haematococcus pluvialis were identified by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI)MS). Identification of each compound was based on the characteristic fragment ions of the(More)
Francisella tularensis, a category A bioterrorism agent, is a highly infectious organism that is passed on via skin contact and inhalation routes. A live attenuated vaccine strain (LVS) has been developed, but it has not been licensed for public use by the FDA due to safety concerns. Thus, there exists a need for a safer and improved vaccine. In this study,(More)
Schistosomiasis is an endemic, zoonotic parasitic disease that remains a public health concern in China. Development of transmission blocking veterinary vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infection is urgently needed. Replication-defective adenoviral vector is an efficient vaccine delivery system that has been widely used. Its use is associated with(More)
The nontoxic mutant lethal factor (mLF; which has the E687C substitution) and functional protective antigen (PA63) of Bacillus anthracis were evaluated for their use as mucosal vaccines against anthrax in A/J mice. Intranasal vaccination of three doses of 30 microg of mLF or 60 microg of PA63 elicited significant serum and mucosal antibody responses, with(More)
BACKGROUND The 3 most commonly encountered bacteria in acute otitis media (AOM) are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Conventional culture methods detect these pathogens in only 60% to 70% of cases of AOM. Alloiococcus otitidis, another potential pathogen, has often been ignored. METHODS Tympanocentesis was(More)
We used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to not only investigate the mRNA levels of anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1) and 2 (ANTXR2) in the murine J774A.1 macrophage cells and different tissues of mice, but also evaluate the effect of anthrax edema toxin and Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores on the expression of mRNA of these receptors. The mRNA transcripts of(More)
Recombinant adenoviruses (Ad) are being explored as promising delivery systems for gene therapy and vaccination. However, there is a concern about the possibility of generating replication-competent adenoviruses (RCA) using the human embryonic kidney 293 cell line. We have constructed a new cell line named the UR cell line which can be used to produce Ad(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins cause botulism, a neuroparalytic disease in humans and animals. We constructed a replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding a synthesized codon-optimized gene for expression of the heavy chain C-fragment (H(C)50) of botulinum neurotoxin type C (BoNT/C). This recombinant human serotype 5 adenoviral vector (Ad5) was evaluated as a(More)
OBJECTIVE Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu) are major etiologic pathogens for acute otitis media (AOM). However, when Spn and Hflu strains are not identified by traditional culture methods, use of alternative PCR-based diagnosis becomes critical. This study aimed to develop a combined molecular method to accurately detect(More)